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£1,000 - £5,000


Student elective for Ahmad Moola, Mayooran Shanmuganathan & Oliver Todd. 11 Jun 2007

Over 25,000 British Muslims are amongst the 2 million who perform the annual Hajj pilgrimage to Saudi Arabia, making it the largest annual gathering on earth. Consequently, the Hajj poses a number of important public health challenges. Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are thought to be the most common illness affecting up to 33% of pilgrims. A number of factors unique to the Hajj, from overcrowding to heat exhaustion, heighten the risk of transmission of RTIs. These include: (a) The various states of health of pilgrims arriving from an estimated 140 countries, each from their own, ethnic, linguistic and social backgrounds bringing the endemic illness associated with their subpopulations, (b) Overcrowding, in particular those associated with the rites of the Hajj, results in pilgrims sharing accommodation, often with up to 150 per tent, in the desert plains of Mina and Arafat; (c) Inadequate nutrition, (d) Poor accessibility to clean drinking water; (e) Heat exhaustion - it is not unknown for the desert temperatures to reach 400C; (f) The considerable physical exertion and travel, often undertaken by foot, necessary to fulfil the rites of the Hajj. Furthermore, as Islam is governed by the lunar calendar, the Hajj falls 11 days earlier each year. Currently it falls in the winter season when RTIs are most prevalent. With current opinion that a global influenza pandemic is imminent and the findings of avian influenza in humans including in Indonesia, the world's most populous Muslim nation, experts suggest current public health measures are inadequate to cope with such an outbreak.

Amount: £4,200
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Imperial College London

Student electives for Mostayn Alam and James Myerscough. 28 May 2007

Hydrocephalus is a condition in which abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain causes increased intracranial pressure inside the skull. This is usually due to blockage of CSF outflow in the brain ventricles or in the subarachnoid space at the base of the brain. Chronic hydrocephalus (CH) is characterized by increased cerebrospinal fluid volume with or without increased intracranial pressure (ICP), and often associated with impaired cognition thought to be related to decrease cerebral blood flow and oxygen delivery. In hydrocephalus, increased ICP and vascular compression as the result of enlarged ventricles may be directly responsible. VEGF plays a critical role in angiogenesis, neuronal protection as it relates to ischemic/hypoxic events.

Amount: £2,600
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Southampton

Student elective prize for Jemima Tagal. 18 Apr 2007

Factors affecting treatment compliance in patients with spinal tuberculosis - demographics, clinical features and treatment regimens Patient compliance with treatment is a major factor in determining a successful outcome, especially in patients with tuberculosis (TB). Non-compliance results in treatment failure, disease relapse, and drug resistance. Malaysia has adopted the WHO Directly Observed Treatment, Short Course (DOTS) programme in an effort to reduce the national TB incidence. Despite this, local compliance with treatment remains a problem. Spinal TB is quite common in Malaysia, and has an extremely high morbidity. The local demographical, clinical and treatment regimen factors that may affect compliance with anti-TB treatment in Malaysia has not been analysed in patients with spinal TB. Aims of project: Consider the local demographics of patients with tuberculosis of the spine Compare the demographical and clinical features, and treatment regimens of compliant and non-compliant patients with tuberculosis of the spine The ultimate aim of this study is to identify patients at higher risk of defaulting anti-TB treatment to serve as a basis for planning health promotive interventions.

Amount: £1,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Cardiff University

Africa Centre support costs. 23 Jan 2006

Not available

Amount: £1,935
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Tufts University

The medical missionaries of the Salvation Army in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Kerala. 30 Aug 2006

The medical missionaries of the Salvation Army in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Kerala The project deals extensively with the medical activities of the Salvation Army in the Malayali speaking parts of South India in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The boom marches of this Salvation Army in the 1890s led to a large-scale conversion of the lower castes to Christianity. The conversion largely took place in the Agasteepuram and Tovala taluks of Travancore. A visit by General William Booth, the founder at the end of 1895 aroused a great deal of interest among the new converts. In the following year, responding to the appeals of these converts, a dispensary was established in a room of the head quarters at Nagercoil. This experiment proved to be successful and in 1897 a small hospital was built. The construction of a number of new buildings and the commencement of a medical class for the training of medical officer competent to take charge of the rural dispensaries extended this branch later in 1900. This medical activity, which owed its successes to Harry Andrew, brought the Salavation Army at an equal footing with the CMS in Travancore. Subsequently, Dr. Percy Brown laid down the course of the programmes of the medical mission. One of the important aims was to impart the evangelistic workers with the rudimentary knowledge relating to hygiene and first aid. This project seeks to highlight the various interesting aspects of the medical activities of the Salvation Army. Dr. Percy Brown and other qualified doctors laid the basis of medical training in Kerala. It would be also be pointed out that though the princely states of Travancore and Cochin differed with the missionaries on religious grounds, they expected the Salvation Army to provide medical relief to the poor. At the same time by patronizing medical institutions, the ruling groups tried to enhance the reputation of the Maharajas as charitable personalities, who followed the convention of Hindu society and dharma.

Amount: £1,500
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Calcutta

Lifecourse, wellbeing and public policy in developing countries 22 May 2006

Life course, wellbeing and public policy in developing countries There is a need to develop new frameworks which facilitate analysis of demographic and epidemiological change in developing countries. No substantial research, publication or meeting has sought to explore the potential of life course frameworks to this end. Bringing together academics from a range of discipline and backgrounds, this conference will provide a platform for a significant shift in understandings of wellbeing and health in developing countries. The conference will be divided into four sessions. The first of these will explore different approaches to conceptualising the life course and will consider their specific applications to developing countries. Different speakers will explore life course from clinical, sociological, anthropological and demographic perspectives. The second session will focus on aspects of life course which relate to fertility, reproduction and demographic change in developing countries. The third session will consider how life course frameworks can enhance our understanding of issues relating to health and wellbeing in developing countries, and will pay particular attention to policy implications. The meeting will conclude with a roundtable and a discussion of research and publication plans. It is planned that the workshop will lead on to an academic network on life course, health and wellbeing in developing countries, which will take the form of an electronic discussion forum as well as future meetings and projects.

Amount: £3,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of East Anglia

Social history of health and medicine in colonial Orissa. 22 May 2006

I am interested in collecting materials related to my current research on Indigenous Health Systems in colonial Orissa. I intend locating materials related to the princely states as well as the tracts directly held by the colonial administration. Basically my (present) project relates to exploring the world of the adibasis (viz. tribals) and the outcasters (viz. "untouchables"). This is an ignored area and normally scholars assume that Ayurvedic and Yunani systems are the indigenous systems when it comes to colonial South Asia. It is indeed amazing that the world of the adibasis and the outcastes that have intimately influenced the Ayurvedic system is not even mentioned by established historians working on themes related to the social history of health/medicine in India. I hope to collect materials related to South Asia, especially south-eastern India and see some of the tracts including the newly acquired resources at the Wellcome Library (manuscript section) that deal specifically with Orissa. Besides, I would also like to see the way the new scholarship negotiates the subject when it comes to other pars of the world. I would also like to work at the British Library (OIOC) and the SOAS Library (all London) and the Centre for Indian Studies Library at Oxford. My tentative plan is to work for 6 weeks between 1 June and 15 July 2006.

Amount: £1,500
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Delhi

Impact of Ancient Indian Medicine on Cultural Diplomacy (with reference to Ancient India). 22 Nov 2005

To consult books and records kept in the Wellcome Trust Library on the topic and impact of Ancient Indian Medicine on cultural diplomacy (with reference to Ancient India).

Amount: £1,500
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Misc India

Mitochondrial probes for oxidative stress. 08 Feb 2006

Mitochondrial probes for oxidative stress Interest has recently been focused on the damage caused to mitochondria by reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydroxyl (HO·), peroxyl (HO2·) and superoxide (O2·) radicals. Such damage appears to be causal in the universally experienced, but poorly understood, process of ageing. Thus, the extension of lifespan when there is calorie restriction in the diet of rats appears to arise at least in part from reduced oxidative damage to mitochondria. Furthermore, murine life span can be extended by overexpression of catalase targeted to mitochondria, where the increased removal of hydrogen peroxide will reduce ROS production and consequent damage. Oxidative stress is also important in a range of pathologies including the accelerated atherosclerosis associated with diabetes. Mitochondria are particularly susceptible to oxidative stress because much of the intracellular production of ROS arises in these organelles, particularly when a large proton motive force is generated by mitochondria respiring, but not producing ATP. Understanding the role and significance of ROS generated in mitochondria in ageing and pathologies where oxidative stress appears important has been hampered by a lack of mitochondria-targeted probes that specifically detect radicals. The aim of this research is to develop such generally useful probes and to use them to test the hypothesis that increased production of ROS in mitochondria is a major contributor to oxidative damage during hyperglycaemia (important in diabetes). The only technique that observes radicals directly and to the exclusion of all non-radical species is electron paramagnetic spectroscopy (EPR). The technique is very versatile and is useful in studies extending from simple chemical reactions in the test tube to the observation of radicals in vivo. Thus, the probes to be developed are for use with EPR spectroscopy. The specific objectives are to: (i) Design and synthesise new hydroxylamine H-atom transfer probes for EPR spectroscopy. (ii) Characterisation of their chemical reactivity with radicals and the longevity of the EPR signal produced in the presence of ascorbic acid. (iii) Determination of uptake into isolated mitochondria and whole cells. (iv) Application of probes to investigate the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in oxidative damage in hyperglycaemia (and to protect cells against cellular ageing).

Amount: £2,060
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Glasgow

The roles of glial cells in models of neurodegenerative disease. 14 Dec 2005

My own work, using fluorescent imaging techniques during the rotation project, showed that Ab increases ROS generation by activation of the NADPH oxidase in BV2 cells and that inhibition of the CLIC1-mediated chloride conductance - with IAA-94, by transfecting cells with an siRNA against the CLIC1 protein or by substitution of Cl with non-permeant anions almost completely prevents that response. We propose that the activity of the NADPH oxidase is limited by charge compensation and that the chloride conductance plays a key role in augmenting the activity of the enzyme by providing a route for the compensation of electron flow across the membrane. CLIC1 is also expressed in astrocytes, but at present we have no data regarding its possible functions. The functions of this CLIC1-mediated chloride conductance, its mode of activation, the means by which its inhibition can reduce ROS production and neuronal death and its potential ubiquity and general importance in glial cell physiology will form the basis of the research to be undertaken during the course of this PhD.

Amount: £4,890
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College London

Glamorgan Record Office Preservation Boxing. 26 Apr 2006

Glamorgan Record Office Preservation Boxing The Glamorgan Record Office collects, preserves and makes accessible documents relating to the former counties of Mid and South Glamorgan, parishes in the Diocese of Llandaff, and the archives relating to the administration of the whole of the historic county of Glamorgan before 1974. The Glamorgan Record Office was established in 1939 and medical-related archives have been acquired since then as part of this function. The Glamorgan Record Office will be moving to new premises in the autumn of 2006. In order that the benefits of these new premises are maximised and that the Glamorgan Record Office's Collection is protected during its removal it is essential that an extensive packaging programme proceeds as quickly as possible. As a result of grant funding awarded by the Welsh Assembly Government division CyMAL: Museums Archives Libraries Wales, the Glamorgan Record Office has now purchased a Kasemake box making machine and is proceeding with its project to repackage its collection prior to a move to new premises. This grant application is to support the continuation of this project for the six months to the end of March 2006, with specific focus on the Glamorgan Record Office's significant medical collections.

Amount: £1,186
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Glamorgan Record Office

'Exploiting Medical History: a practical approach' conference to be held at the University of Birmingham from 23rd to 24th October 2006. 30 Aug 2006

Exploiting Medical History: a practical approach To support Librarians, Archivists and researchers by reviewing and analysing projects intended to support research in the History of Medicine. What's happening in the History of Medicine? Research Resources in Medical History Digitisation Preparing a preservation proposal The Queen's College Oxford Medical Collections Raising money Overview of lottery funding for archives Designation scheme Cataloguing and listing Collaborative working Designation - how we did it. Choice 4 out of 6 of these workshops: a. Techniques of Conservation b. Digitisation Principles c. Benchmarks d. Digitisation in Practice e. Grant writing f. Preservation Care

Amount: £3,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Royal Society of Medicine

'In search of the best medical education in Europe 1500-1789: Students, teachers and institutions.' conference to be held at the C.S.I.C, Barcelona, 6-8 September 2007. 30 Aug 2006

In Search of the best Medical Education in Europe 1500-1789: Students, teachers and institutions The conference will have a comparative European Focus, concentrating on the major centres for medical education c. 1500-1789 (including at different times Padua, Bologna, Paris, Montpellier, Basle, Leiden, Edinburgh and Gottingen), exploring how and why the medical faculties of these universities blossomed, what students they attracted, and not least the networks and knowledge they created. The period chosen starts with the increased travelling of the Renaissance and ends with the ancien regime, when both the political structure of Europe and the content and nature of medical teaching changed radically. It is noteworthy that this hugely important cultural interchange in medicine has so far remained unexplored in any systematic way, something which this conference will remedy. The conference will deal with how medical knowledge was disseminated, validated and accepted; the relationship between medical centres of excellence and the periphery; how medical careers were built and the role and status of medical travel in this connection; the role of a republic of letters in medicine established as a consequence of medical travel; the significance of the medical tutor in mentoring students' travel; the importance of personal contacts, exchange of books etc., in facilitating the spread of new medical knowledge.

Amount: £3,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Open University (Milton Keynes)

'PhD Training Programme in the History of Medicine' to be held at the Wellcome Centre for the History of Medicine at UCL from October 2006 to June 2007. 30 Aug 2006

PhD Training Programme in the History of Medicine The organisers consider that there are four important imperatives to the programme described below: (i) Research Councils and other bodies offering PhD bursaries are increasingly moving to achieve standardised if not regional/national training programmes for those whom they sponsor. Financial incentives are increasingly being offered to both students and institutions by bodies such as the AHRC to ensure that adequate training programmes are in place. For students funded by the Wellcome Trust and for other PhD students in the History of Medicine funded from other sources, this has meant their inclusion in general training courses offered by Schools/Faculties and Universities, potentially supplemented by some discipline specific training, though this has in many places been patchy. (ii) The experience of students at Oxford Brookes University, where a discipline specific training programme has been running for three years, is that students tend to complete more quickly and come out into the job market better equipped (in terms of publications, ability to write grant applications and public speaking skills) where they are offered a programme tailored to the particular problems and opportunities attached to doing a PhD in the History of Medicine. (iii) The recent Social History of Medicine Conference sponsored by the Trust demonstrated clearly the overlapping nature of research interests of doctoral students in Institutions at different ends of the country. A national training programme would bring together all PhD students at the start of their studies and provide a forum for the sharing of knowledge and social networks, as well as a platform for self-organisation. (iv) While Wellcome Trust History of Medicine Grant Panel is keen to support young postdoctoral scholars, the committee has been disappointed by the quality of applications and the small number of publications generated at the doctoral stage. The experience of Oxford Brookes University shows that this situation can be addressed by sharing knowledge, creating opportunities for students to discuss their work and providing training in areas such as publications and grant writing. To this end, we propose to hold a series of one day workshops to be jointly staffed by academics and administrators from Oxford Brookes University and the Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine at UCL.

Amount: £3,600
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Oxford Brookes University

Death, mourning commemoration in late twentieth-century Scotland: the impact of medicalisation and rationalisation on everyday death practices. 30 Aug 2006

Passing Time - Death in Late Twentieth Century Scotland The focus of this research project will be on changing practices surrounding death, the 'ultimate' rite of passage. In particular, it will consider the impact of the medicalisation and rationalisation of death and dying on social attitudes in a period when healthcare practice was improving and life expectancies increased. These broad themes are investigated within a tightly focussed geographical area and time frame - namely late twentieth century Scotland. The study will address 3 sets of key research questions: What has been the impact of rapid and fundamental change in terms of demography, medicalisation and secularisation on Scottish death practices? How far has the handling of death been a metaphor of attitudes towards wider social arrangements concerning the community, gender relations and the family? How far do the essential themes identified by the sociologists like Schilling have a resonance in Scottish experience? These include: privatisation and rationalisation in the organisation of death; shrinkage in scope of sacred in terms of experience of death; fundamental shift in corporeal boundaries, symbolic and actual which separate dead from living. What patterns have evolved in terms of gendered death? How far, for example, has the process of 'defeminising' the management of death been challenged by the hospice movement?

Amount: £1,546
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Glasgow Caledonian University

Children and hospitals in eighteenth-century provincial English and Scottish towns. 30 Aug 2006

'Children and hospitals in eighteenth century provincial English and Scottish towns' The pilot project will establish the feasibility of a larger scale investigation into child health and the hospital movement in eighteenth century English and Scottish provincial towns. This is a significant topic given the almost total neglect of children as a category of the sick population in this period, and especially outside London. Clearly a growing interest in child health from medical practitioners, and the beneficence of individual subscribers over-rode the blanket exclusion of the young. An examination of how children were catered for in hospitals will be a valuable addition to our understanding of hospital aims and functions, as well as attitudes towards child health. The project has three immediate aims: To establish how far and how uniformly hospital admission records recorded patients' ages, and how commonly children were treated in hospitals in different towns. This will enable me to analyse how far the young were integrated into the growing system of general hospital care. To investigate how far the treatment of children was related to the aims and interests of specific doctors or benefactors, or to the ideals of individual institutions at their foundations. This will be accessed via the hospitals' own literature, and any surviving case notes. By casting the geographical net widely (using all extant registers), I will be able to assess whether and how far ideals and practices differed at different institutions, or whether we can discern a common trend in the treatment of sick children. To address how far it is possible to draw distinctions, between in-patient and out-patient care, as it has proved to be for Northampton, and how far child patients were treated differently from adults, both socially and medically. How far were children admitted on the basis of 'interesting' conditions, and how far were they treated solely on medical need? Were they housed with adult patients, and were expectations of their behaviour the same?

Amount: £1,990
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Misc England

'Islam and Tibet: Cultural Interactions' conference to be held at the Warburg Institute, London from 16 to 18 November 2006. 20 Sep 2006

Islam and Tibet: Cultural Interactions Historical connections between the Islamic world and Tibet have received little attention in modern scholarship. The study of the relations between these two spheres requires expertise in a great variety of fields, geographies, histories, and cultures. Furthermore, perceptions of the Islamic world and Tibet as isolated entities have persisted until today due to a Eurocentric world view which perceives other cultures almost exclusively in their relation to Europe and European history. The research project "Islam and Tibet; cultural interactions (8th -17th centuries)" which has been hosted at the Warburg Institute since February 2005, aims at redefining cross-cultural relations within Central Asia. The interdisciplinary character of the project is indispensable for a complex analysis of the various contacts between the Islamic world and Tibet. The conference aims at bringing together a great variety of scholars who are experts in the various fields involved in these complex relations between the Islamic world and Tibet. It is the first academic event to deal with these historical relations and serves as an initial stage for establishing an international network of scholars. The topics which are covered in the conference reflect the complexity of connections between the two spheres. Some participants will present aspects of the historical background of contacts between the Islamic world and Tibet. Other speakers will address questions of mutual perceptions and knowledge of the other culture, in particular in the areas of geography, cartography, ethnography and religion. Other participants will focus on the history of medicine (both theories and ideas and pharmaceutics) and science. Still others will present specific groups that acted as intermediaries such as travellers and traders and holy men who integrated different religious traditions. Attention will also be paid to mutual influences in the fields of literature and art.

Amount: £2,230
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Warburg Institute