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Current Filters

Recipients:
University College London
Amounts:
£500 - £1,000
£10,000 - £50,000
Award Year:
2007

Results

Socioeconomic determinants of disability in Eastern Europe. 04 Dec 2007

The proposed research will investigate the levels and predictors of disability in urban population samples in three Eastern European countries (Poland, Russia and the Czech Republic). The key scientific goals of the project are: (i) to provide estimates of the prevalence of disability in these populations; (ii) to analyse the association between disability and socioeconomic factors over the life course; (iii) to assess the relative importance of different socioeconomic factors; (iv) and to investigate whether differences in the prevalence of disability between populations can be explained by individual-level socioeconomic variables. An equally important goal is to provide the candidate with comprehensive training in epidemiology and in the area of ageing. The project will use data collected by the HAPIEE study, a large multi-centre study funded by the Wellcome Trust (the candidate is based in the Polish HAPIEE study centre). The baseline survey, completed in 2005, recruited more than 29,000 men and women aged 45-69; Wave II will be completed in 2008. Disability will be defined as impaired physical functioning and reduced ability to perform usual activities of daily life, and the covariates will include socioeconomic status in childhood and adulthood, current income and wealth.

Amount: £25,767
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College London

Methods in Molecular Microbiology - A capacity development programme for Africa. 05 Oct 2007

This training programme will provide 15 attendees from across east Africa with: 1. Update on the basic princples of molecular biology 2. Introduction / update on the principle techniques of molecular biology in the context of infectious diseases. 3. Hands on experience of these techniques. 4. Specialist update lectures addressing current issues in clinical microbiology and viology. 5. Introduction to and hands on experience of bioinformatics. This short course provides an introduction or refresher to scientists and clinicians who by virtue of their age or career path have missed out on recent developments in the use of molecular tools in diagnosis and epidemiology of infections.

Amount: £21,310
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College London

'The importance of medical history: Transnational and cross-cultural perspectives on a multi-faceted discipline' conference to be held in Mumbai, India from 15th to 17th November 2007. 17 Oct 2007

The importance of medical history: Trans-national and cross-cultural perspectives on a multi-faceted discipline The proposed meeting will be the first of its type in the South Asian sub-continent - dealing with the important questions of historical method and historiography, from trans-national and cross-disciplinary perspectives; it will allow the audience access to a plethora of perspectives on how to study HOM. The projected audience will be university and college teaching, research and administrative staff of all grades, we well as undergraduate and post-graduate students, doctors, print and TV journalists, and independent researchers. A number of well-known scholars have agreed to attend the meeting, as they acknowledge the usefulness of an event like this in popularising HOM in an important education centre in Asia. These academics, who are attached to a number of Wellcome Trust-funded units, will draw upon an important item of their research - dealing with Europe, North America, Asia and further afield - to develop trans-national perspectives of how to study HOM. This meeting will engender a lot of discussion, which is critically important for an endeavour that seeks to provide new insights to post-and under-graduate teachers about important international developments in the discipline, and the most effective ways of teaching and carrying out research. Themes to be covered: History of pharmacology; Anatomy; Global trade and medicine; Medical genetics and gender; Medicine in the early modern period; Public health in 19th and 20th centuries; Global health programmes and disease eradication; War and medicine; International perspectives on rabies; Scottish doctors and British empire; Obstetrics and surgery; Cross-disciplinary perspectives on leprosy and empire; Hospitals; Medicine and 'witchcraft' in the early modern period; Healthcare in colonial Mumbai/India; Health of industrial labour; Oral histories of contemporary medicine and biological science; History of medical practice and multiple meanings of health.

Amount: £600
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College London

Distinguishing signal from noise in a sensory cortical network. 10 Oct 2007

Distinguishing signal from noise in a sensory cortical network One of the most intriguing questions in neuroscience is how networks of neurons in the mammalian brain work together to store information and thus allow learning to take place. This proposal will use in vivo electrophysiological experiments in rodent barrel cortex combined with theoretical work to understand several key questions related to neural coding in mammalian cortex. We will address the following key questions: Do networks use average spike rate to process information or is the precise timing of every spike important? Is the coding scheme modified by the state of the network, in particular by background noise? How many neurons are needed for accurate transmission of information?

Amount: £13,004
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College London

Hippocampal oscillations and synaptic plasticity - in vitro experiments and theoretical insights. 10 Oct 2007

Hippocampal oscillations and synaptic plasticity - in vitro experiments and theoretical insights To understand the mechanisms underlying the characteristic population firing patterns of pyramidal cells in the CA1 region, which are the principal output from the hippocampal formation. Achieving this goal will take into account the connectivity, synaptic kinetics and neuronal properties of the hippocampal formation, and emerging information on the different types of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity at distinct synapses in the elemental cortical microcircuit.

Amount: £10,755
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College London

Transport and signalling of cell adhesion molecules and their role in motor neuro survival. 10 Oct 2007

We previously demonstrated that histone H2A is phosphorylated at Ser129 in response to DNA damage by the Mec1p and Tel1p kinases in yeast. Others demonstrated that the analogous residue in mammalian chromatin (Ser139 on histone H2AX) is also phosphorylated in response to DNA damage, and H2AX is a tumour suppressor gene in mice, demonstrating that this is a central event in eukaryotic DNA damage responses. Yet, it is still not entirely clear how this phosphorylation event functions to facilitate survival after DNA damage occurs. We therefore propose to further investigate the function of H2A phosphorylation using three approaches. First, we will systematically characterize the phosphorylation event by analyzing the timing, kinetics, and genetic dependence of phosphorylation in different cell cycle phases, growth phases and ploidy backgrounds. Second, we will examine the fate of phosphorylated H2A. Third, we plan to investigate the effect of phoshpoinositol signalling on H2A phosphorylation and DNA damage responses. Finally, we will integrate these studies with ongoing research in the lab in which we have identified proteins that bind specifically to phosphorylated H2A. Together, these studies will advance our understanding of this highly conserved event in particular and of DNA damage responses in general.

Amount: £35,635
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College London

MA in History of Medicine. 31 Aug 2007

I propose to focus my dissertation on the relationship between citizenship, patriotism and health in interwar Britain. I am interested in exploring the way in which fears for national strength informed health campaigns in this period. The Boer War and the Interdepartmental Committee on Physical Deterioration had put anxieties about physical deterioration at the forefront of political debate. The First World War, Olympic failure and the growing threat from totalitarian states enhanced these anxieties, and the interwar period offers a wealth of evidence on this theme. The National Fitness Campaign, which aimed to 'harness the pursuit of individual fitness to the promotion of national vigour and imperial power', is an overt example, but sources such as commercial advertisements also reflect these sentiments. In a 1937 advertisement in the Times, Jaeger advertised its pure wool underwear with the declaration: 'The National Council of Physical Fitness, in their crusade for a healthier nation, need everybody's help Do your part.' Boots the Chemist was equally explicit, claiming that 'the health of the people is the wealth of the nation'.

Amount: £44,176
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College London

The role of vitamin K-dependent coagulation zymogens in adenovirus dissemination and pharmacodynamics in vivo. 05 Jul 2007

This project will consider why delivery of adenoviral vectors via an intravascular route results in the majority of the virus being sequestered by the liver. Our aim is to improve delivery of adenoviral gene therapy vectors to extra-hepatic sites. We have shown a role for circulating blood coagulation factors with a homologous domain structure in mediating adenovirus transduction of hepatocytes in vitro. We have also shown a role for one of these factors (FX) in mediating transduction of liver in vivo using a virus defective in binding to the coxsackie adenovirus receptor. In this innovative project our aim is to investigate the contribution of individual clotting factors to this process. This project through a combination of cutting edge structure-function, in vitro and in vivo studies will provide the basis for the development of pharmaceutical approaches to modulate virus delivery in vivo. Our specific objectives are: · To study the interaction of individual clotting factors with the adenovirus capsid to define the structure function relationship · To study in detail the role of coagulation proteins in adenovirus transduction of hepatocytes in vitro · To study in detail the role of coagulation proteins in adenovirus transduction of liver in vivo.

Amount: £11,788
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College London

Competition for membrane phosphoinositides by different potassium channels?. 09 May 2007

Many ion channels require membrane phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) to open. This work addresses a hypothesis that PIP2-activated ion channels might affect each other s activity through competition for available PIP2. This hypothesis follows from the applicants recent observations that, in sympathetic neurons, expressing the inwardly-rectifying potassium channel Kir2.1 (for which PIP2 has a high affinity) reduces currents carried by the endogenously-expressed lower-affinity M(Kv7) p otassium channel and sensitizes the M-channel to other forms of PIP2 sequestration. We aim to test this interaction further to determine whether this hypothesis can be substantiated or whether the interaction results from some other cause such as changes in M-channel expression. We shall measure the interaction using electrophysiological membrane current recording and will assess expression using both electrophysiolgical and immunocytochemical methods. We shall test whether the interaction is a dependent on the amount of Kir2.1 protein and (using mutants) on Kir2.1 affinity for PIP2, and how it is affected by changing the amount of available PIP2. If the hypothesis is substantiated, it will represent a new form of ion channel interaction, with important implications regarding the mobility of PIP2, ion channel localization, and receptor/PIP2-mediated signaling in neurons and other cells.

Amount: £48,489
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College London

Survey estimation of sexual behaviour, HIV/STI prevalence and development of an HIV prevention intervention in male migrant workers in Surat, India. 19 Feb 2007

Survey estimation of sexual behaviour, HIV/STI prevalence and development of a HIV prevention intervention in male migrant workers in Surat, India Aims: 1) To estimate HIV/STI prevalence and obtain other relevant data to inform the development of targeted interventions to decrease HIV and STI transmission in migrant men working in diamond and textile industries in Surat. 2) To evaluate the efficacy of locally developed syndromic management using laboratory-based diagnoses. Hypothesis: Survey estimates of sexual behaviour, STI and HIV prevalence will guide the development of targeted HIV and STI prevention interventions. Expected outcome: HIV prevalence in migrant men is expected to be at least 5%.

Amount: £19,854
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College London

A prospective study to determine the value of screening carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen for virus with core promoter double mutations as a marker of extremely high risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma. 20 Feb 2007

To aim to evaluate screening of individuals who are persistent carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) for hepatitis B virus (HBV) with core promoter double mutations as a marker to identify those at extremely high risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our objective is to improve the effectiveness and reduce the costs of early diagnosis of HCC so that more lives can be saved by the surgical resection of early-stage tumours. We propose a prospective study of 3000 HBsAg-positive individuals aged 30-35 from southern Guangxi, China, a region with a very high annual incidence of HCC. The subjects will be divided into three groups: 1) viraemic with core promoter mutations, 2) viraemic with wild type virus and 3) non-viraemic. Every six months, their livers will be examined by ultrasonography and serum alpha-fetoprotein levels will be determined in order to diagnose HCC. Data will be analysed using Poisson regression methods to test whether or not the incidence in the three groups is significantly different, after adjusting for possible confounding variables.

Amount: £31,967
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College London

New genetic knowledge and 'lay' expertise in cancer research: examining the cultural context of ethics and legitimacy. 18 Jul 2007

The project examines the social parameters of 'lay expertise' in relation to cancer research charities. It seeks to explore how lay consumers', fundraisers' or patients' perspectives and involvement are being incorporated within organisational practices and research agendas of charities that are funding research into cancer genetics. This initiative provides a vantage point from which to explore the pursuit and problems surrounding ethical legitimacy in the cultural context of the new genetics. This issue will be addressed by examining how emerging genetic knowledge and the development of lay expertise affect: The pre-existing balance between lay and expert and the nature of the 'gift' relationship in cancer research charities Attempts to incorporate lay perspectives and sustain 'hope' Social relations among different fundraisers and personhood in the context of lay expertise. The transactional social spaces of cancer research charities offer an important arena for ethnographic inquiry and therefore the opportunity to contribute to an understanding of science as a social process.

Amount: £16,729
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College London

The Relationship of Visual Perception and Perceptual Binding to Single Cell Activity. 19 Sep 2007

The research project will be to record from the pulvinar nucleus of the thalamus in alert animal models trained to perform a classical conjunction search' task, where the target item is a unique combination of two features (e.g. blue & tilted amidst a display of orange tilted and blue vertical bars, say). Correct performance of the task demonstrates that the target features blue' and tilted' have been correctly bound to each other (and/or to the corresponding object location in space). Individual pulvinar neurons are notexpected to demonstrate pronounced selectivity for either colour, or orientation (although, if they do, the course of the experiment and its validity are not affected). The single unit response, local field potential (LFP - recorded from the same electrode) and the spike-LFP coherence will be monitored while either a target or nontarget is present within the receptive field. The task difficulty will be varied while recording at the same site, inorder to obtain a measure of the neural-behavioural correlate in terms of % correct performance.

Amount: £15,547
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College London