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The Wellcome Trust

Results

"Daily life in the hospital: Theory and practice" to be held on 8-10 April 2011 at the University of Evora, Portugal. 19 Oct 2010

The sixth international conference of the INHH is inspired by the success of our meetings in Norwich, Verona, Montreal\ London and Barcelona. Our continuing aim is to address broad issues and themes in the history of hospitals within a wider social and cultural context. As on previous occasions, we plan to cover as wide a chronological and geographical remit as possible, from the ancient world up to the present century, and to encourage scholars new to the discipline. The main emphasis throughout the conference will be on daily life in the hospital, as . experienced by administrators and medical staff, as well as patients and their families. Given the location of the conference, one of the underlying themes will be links between the Iberian Peninsula and the New World.

Amount: £3,551
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of East Anglia

Social Values and Health Priority Setting: An International Comparative Analysis. 19 Oct 2010

All health care systems are facing the challenge of ensuring that high quality care is provided to the maximum number of people at a cost that the country can afford. This meeting brings together researchers and policy makers from a range of countries. Its specific objectives will be 1. To explore the different ways in which social values are understood in different national contexts 2. To identify cross-nationally how social values are incorporated into decisions about healthcare resource allocation 3. To assess the relative contributions of ethical analysis and public engagement in the development and application of those values. To facilitate these objectives, a position paper will be prepared with input from policy makers in the participating countries. The immediate output of the workshop will be a paper summarizing current international approaches. However, the workshop will lay the basis for a planned research programme aimed at understanding further the similarities and differences in the shape and expression of social values in priority setting, whether or how those social values are assessed, what is their political context, and the degree of consensus and diversity within each national setting in different countries across the world.

"Colonial science and its histories. The workshop" to be held at the Institute of Historical Research, London on 14 January 2011 19 Oct 2010

This will be a one-day symposium involving both established scholars and early career researchers from the disciplines of history of science, history of medicine and historical geography. The discussion will focus on pre-modern natural history (1450-1850), and its relevance for the practice of medicine, pharmacy, and science more generally in Europe and, eventually, its colonies. In particular, natural history will be considered in its importance as a gateway for colonial expansion and later imperial high-handedness, and concurrently as one of the few successful vehicles for a fruitful exchange between metropolitan and indigenous knowledge. Hence the title: colonial science, or, rather, colonial life sciences. For the four centuries covered by the workshop, indeed, natural history lived at the intersection of a major concern about the relationship between health and the environment- offering answers to Europeans increasingly disquieted by the widening of their world's horizons: from revisions of the ancients' materia medica to the first modern theorizations of race as both a physiological and geographical construct. As such, it lends itself particularly well as a platform for historians working from different disciplinary perspectives to reflect on the historiographical and conceptual developments that now allow us to talk of 'colonial sciences and colonial medicines'.

Amount: £3,275
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Institute of Historical Research

Autism Ethics Group. 19 Oct 2010

To identify and analyse the ethical issues raised by.autism To bring to bear on the ethical issues current advances in science, neuroscience and psychology. To enable an exchange of ideas between scientists and Ethicists. To identify the implications for research and intervention of different ethical viewpoints. To facilitate the inclusion in the discussion of those directly affected by autism and their carers : To produce papers for a conference

Amount: £2,589
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: King's College London

Northern Ireland Healthcare workers' views on the pandemic and seasonal flu vaccine: a comparison of US and NI healthcare workers. 19 Oct 2010

The purpose of this study is to determine whether healthcare workers (doctors and nurses) feel that they have a duty to be vaccinated against influenza for the safety of their patients. Secondary objectives include 1) understanding why physicians decline to be vaccinated, 2) whether physicians encourage their patients to be vaccinated and 3) whether differences exist in the US and Northern Irish healthcare worker population sampled.

Amount: £2,740
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Queen's University Belfast

Governance of Healthcare; ethics, equity and justice: 3rd IJME National Bioethics Conference. 19 Oct 2010

To bring together diverse perspectives among practitioners, administrators, policy-makers and activists on governance in healthcare, towards building an equitable and just health system. To examine the contemporary ethical debates and concerns in the field of regulation, accountability and healthcare reform To provide opportunities for sharing experiences on addressing ethical problems in healthcare governance at the individual, institutional and system level To showcase contemporary research and writing on bioethics in India and similar countries.

Amount: £9,640
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Anusandhan Trust

Prisoners as patients: Homosexuality and same-sex desire in German prisoner of war camps in the United States during World War II 19 Oct 2010

The project will study the experience of German soldiers who were caught in sexual activities with other prisoners while in captivity in the United States during World War II. The U.S. Army considered these prisoners 'sexual psychopaths' and ordered that they should be transferred to hospitals for treatment if deemed 'reclaimable'. Nothing has so far been written about these prisoners and little is known about their experience. The key goal of this project is to change that by locating primary sources dealing with this little known chapter of World War II history and by publishing the results in a journal article.

Amount: £1,370
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Exeter

Situating Medicine: New Directions in the History of Medicine. 14 Dec 2010

Building on the Centre for the History of Medicine s (CHM) research strengths, increasingly global orientation, interest in interdisciplinary approaches, and eagerness to reflect critically on our discipline and its relationship with medicine and the public, our second Strategic Award will focus on research under the heading Situating Medicine: New Directions in the History of Medicine . This will be shaped by four contexts which will strongly inform our research projects: 1) reframing our rese arch questions to respond to recent changes within medicine; 2) reflecting critically on the disciplinary context of our work; 3) locating our research in the context of globalisation and global governance; and 4) responding to the changing relationship between both medicine and the history of medicine and the public. Informed by these four contexts, our research programme focuses upon four strands of work: Systems of Medicine and Health , interrogating relationships between the classical an d traditional and health practice and everyday life; Health and Governance , considering how health serves as an object and mode of governance; Histories of Biopower , with particular reference to visual strategies and the global traffic in medical garbage; and Post-war Mental Health in Global Context , focusing on children s mental health and diagnosis of societies.

Amount: £4,732
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Big Bang 2012 & 2013 31 Aug 2011

Not available

Amount: £100,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Big Bang Education CIC

Creating a Centre of Perception Research at the Science Museum 05 May 2011

Led by Neuroscientist Beau Lotto in collaboration with key staff of London's Science Museum, Lottolab Studio is creating the world's first Centre of Perception Research (CoPR - previously called 'The Box'). CoPR will be a public science lab housed in a large, open and prominent gallery in London's Science Museum. CoPR's ambition is to transform the public's view of science and themselves by enabling the public to become integral to the process of scientific research into human perception. The concept at the core of the centre is simply this: The best form of public engagement is science itself. What's needed is a topic that transcends disciplines and is relevant to everyone (perception), and an approach to engagement that enables the public to take ownership of science (a public lab environment). We have devised 7 programmes that put the public at the heart of the process of discovery. This proposal seeks to clarify and trial these public programmes at London's Science Museum, which will result in critical research and specific deliverables into a fundamentally different form of public engagement in public spaces.

Amount: £150,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Lottolab Studio

Senseless: Anaesthesia, Consciousness & Pain (working title) 05 May 2011

Senseless will explore contemporary anaesthesia in an engaging, thought-provoking and inspiring exhibition and event series. It will be a collaborative partnership, hosted in the Science Museum's redeveloped contemporary science gallery, Antenna. Anaesthesia is both intriguing and deeply personal - surgeons remove vital organs while we're totally unconscious and carry out minor operations as we watch. Many of us have experienced anaesthesia, yet scientists don't fully understand how it works. Its effects on our consciousness and pain sensation fascinate and frightens. In this pioneering project, we'll harness public fascination with anaesthesia and create a new audience-led model to co-curate a contemporary science exhibition. Five innovative events will bring together members of the public with clinical researchers to inform and shape exhibition content. The latest anaesthetic research will be brought to life by objects, images, audio-visuals, interactives, expert voices and personal experiences in the resulting exhibition. Senseless will compel visitors to explore anaesthesia through four themes: Consciousness (anaesthesia & consciousness); Lost Feeling (molecular mechanisms of anaesthetic drug action); Pain Game (anaesthesia & pain research); Risk Factor (risks & complications) There will also be discussion events and online content that include: Dana Centre dialogue events In-gallery 'Talkaoke' sessions (Please see supporting material) Senseless content on Antenna website Senseless will be open for nine months and will be free to the Museum's over 2.8 million annual visitors. It will provide a unique opportunity for the anaesthetic profession to consider and respond to public concerns about anaesthesia.

Amount: £150,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Science Museum

Naked Neuroscience: a spine-tingling interactive, educational multimedia initiative 05 May 2011

Working alongside research-active neuroscientists and educators, we envisage the creation of a multimedia, neuroscience-focused, audience-interactive touring stage show aimed at schools and the general public and comprising a series of linked experiments and demonstrations designed to illustrate the workings of the nervous system. This initiative, which will be curriculum-relevant and targeted at ages 12 and up, will be supported by a suite of freely-accessible online multimedia content including illustrated webpages, worksheets and interactive experiments for users to try at home, as well as video sequences and a monthly 60 minute neuroscience podcast. The podcast will be conversational, news-led and feature updates on recent discoveries in the neuroscience arena as well as interviews with leading researchers internationally. Moreover, it will be produced and presented by researchers themselves, providing valuable training in traditional and new media broadcast techniques. To maximise the overall reach of the project, the resulting content will also form part of the weekly output of the Naked Scientists BBC radio show, podcast and website. These are existing awardwinning public engagement initiatives that reach a large (multi-million scale) and diverse listenership from a range of ages and backgrounds, including audiences judged to be hard to reach. Together, these initiatives will enable us to take neuroscience-focused content to millions of people, including, most critically, young people whose interest in science we are seeking to nurture. At the same time, the direct involvement of scientists of all levels, including PhD students and undergraduates, means that we have an opportunity to help these researchers to develop their own skills in public engagement while simultaneously ensuring that the resulting project content remains scientifically robust and relevant.

Amount: £120,576
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Cambridge

WONDERMIND 05 May 2011

Wondermind will reach new audiences not normally engaged with biomedical science by delivering a highly interactive and immersive website for children aged 8-12 and their parents, carers and teachers, which will introduce them to key neuroscience concepts in child development. They will learn about the science of brain development, inspired by works from the Tate collection and an exploration of the world presented by Lewis Carroll. The website will stimulate interest, excitement and debate about biomedical science through three main areas: 1. A series of mini-games, which will use art and ?Alice in Wonderland? themes to introduce our areas of scientific focus in a friendly and engaging way. The mini-games will be designed so that players acquire some basic information about the science of brain development through their play. 2. A set of interactive videos that link with the mini-games, but delve deeper into the science, with interviews with leading scientists and researchers. The interactive nature of the video will give the feeling of having a conversation with the expert. 3. The website itself, which holds all the content together and allows users to navigate and find information to support the scientific themes explored in the mini games and videos, linking out to further information where relevant and necessary. There will be polls and areas of the site that allow both children and adults to feed back on issues raised by the content, to encourage new ways of thinking about biomedical science. There will be lesson plans for Art and Science curricula at KS2 to support the use of Wondermind in the classroom. Wondermind will be launched with the forthcoming ?Alice in Wonderland? (http://www.tate.org.uk/liverpool/exhibitions/aliceinwonderland/default.shtm) exhibition at Tate Liverpool in November 2011.

Amount: £186,618
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Tate Media

Smarter UK 10 Nov 2010

Our vision is informed by an evaluation (see attached) of the pilot, a People award run with great success in schools in Bristol and Glasgow. Learning from the evaluation will inform re-development of the project. The script will be revised in close partnership with a renowned playwright, Toby Hulse, (who has a great deal of experience working with and writing for young people). The vision for Smarter UK is a sustainable dialogue event, (stimulated by an introductory drama - a format which Graphic Science devised and used with considerable success for a previous Society Award ?Meet the Gene Machine?), which is integrated into the repertoire of our delivery partners and will continue to reach young people after project completion. Smarter UK will enable young people to explore the social and ethical issues surrounding pharmacological brain enhancement, (with reference to the role of neurotransmitters in memory and the effects of drugs on the brain). It will be delivered to 9000 13-16 year olds in schools across the UK. A rich and well tested suite of associated classroom resources, available through a dedicated website, will also help teachers to explore new ways to stimulate discussion about contemporary scientific issues. Neuroscience researchers will be teamed with professional science presenters in the ?Neuroscience Cities? - Bristol, Cardiff, Cambridge and Edinburgh, along with Oxford (due to its strong Neuroscience community). We hope the experience, and the provision of engagement training, will help achieve an embedded culture of engagement with schools into the practices of participating neuroscientists.

Amount: £194,400
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Graphic Science Ltd

Microfluidic Platform for Investigating the Kinetics of Extracellular Vesicle Induced Metastatic Niche Formation 21 May 2018

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are believed to be important messengers in the progression of metastatic cancer that prime distant organs for tumour cell colonisation. However, due to an inadequacy of relevant tools, we have a poor understanding of how EVs distribute to, diffuse into and remodel organs into metastatic niches. The goal of this project is to develop novel microfluidic platforms for performing real-time continuous quantification of EV kinetics over multiple days in physiologically-relevant microenvironments. Towards this end, I propose three aims: Develop Microfluidic Metastatic Niche Platforms to explore the interaction of extracellular vesicles with liver tissue and vasculature. Investigate the kinetics of EV distribution, uptake and diffusion in liver and vasculature compartments of Microfluidic Metastatic Niche Platforms. Explore the influence of EV kinetics (distribution, uptake and diffusion) on the ability of cancer cells to attach, invade and proliferate in Microfluidic Metastatic Niche Platforms. The results of this project will enhance our understanding of metastatic cancer progression and will contribute valuable data for numerous follow-up studies aiming to inhibit or even prevent the development of metastatic niches.

Amount: £99,951
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Imperial College London

Mechanisms and pharmacodynamics of antifungal agents for cryptococcal meningitis. 30 Sep 2018

Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is an infection of the brain and surrounding tissues (the meninges). It is caused by a yeast called Cryptococcus and is responsible for approximately 180,000 deaths annually (26). The most effective drug is amphotericin B (AmB) which needs to be given for 2 weeks and causes dangerous side-effects. A modified formulation, liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB), may be easier to administer to patients because it can be given as a single dose, and appears to be as effective as 2-weeks of conventional AmB (12, 15, 23). This observation raises a number of questions: 1) What is the optimal dosing strategy for LAmB? I will measure drug levels and describe their relationship with reduction in Cryptococcus levels. 2) How does one dose of LAmB exert a prolonged effect? i will image the movement of LAmB in mouse brains and meninges to assess how long LAmB stays in these regions. During treatment for CM, the rate of decline of yeast in spinal fluid is highly variable (24, 25, 27). Therefore, another question is: 3) Do different groups of yeast vary in teir response to treatment? I will collect samples of Cryptococcus and characterise their survival ability in various conditions.

Amount: £0
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Liverpool

Clinical Characterisation of a Broad Spectrum of Genetic Variation in the General Population 30 Sep 2018

Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are severe and extreme changes in metabolism caused by mutations in a single gene. Recent large-scale human studies have shown that genes causal for IEM are associated with nutrients, or ‘metabolites’, in the blood. However, whether these associations cause disease or adverse health outcomes is unknown. In this project, I will use IEM genes identified in these studies to link genetic variation to clinical features in a large human population. To do this, I will assemble a list of IEM genes of interest that were identified in the literature and in large population datasets. I will then test for associations between the variants I find in these genes and a wide range of clinical features found in open-access population datasets. As the IEM genes used in this study have been associated with blood metabolites previously, linking variants in these genes to clinical features will shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying genes and disease in the general population. Understanding how genetic variation affects disease will help identify novel therapeutic targets and enable health professionals to better manage disease risk.

Amount: £0
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Cambridge

LMIC Travel Scholarships for Global Climate and Health Forum 30 Sep 2018

The Global Climate and Health Forum is a one-day, high-level convening of global climate and health leaders designed to mobilize stronger health sector engagement in and commitments to climate action. The Forum will bring together 250 leaders from national and local governments, health systems, public health agencies, civil society, and international organizations to build the community of climate and health professionals, strengthen collaboration across sectors, and raise the health voice for climate action. The Forum will be held at the University of California, San Francisco on September 12th, 2018. The Forum is an affiliate event of the Global Climate Action Summit, and co-hosted by the UCSF Global Health Group, Health Care Without Harm, Global Climate and Health Alliance, and US Climate and Health Alliance. In order to make the Forum a truly global event, it is imperative that the Forum includes speakers and participants from low- and middle-income countries who are leading climate mitigation, adaptation, and resilience work in the most vulnerable regions and communities. Funding from the Wellcome Trust will be used to support five travel scholarships for participants from the global South, including all registration, travel, accommodation, and event-related expenses.

Structure and mechanism of the Ino80 chromatin remodelling complex 28 Nov 2017

Compaction of the genome into chromatin helps to protect the genetic material but also causes problems in regard to access for essential processes such as transcription, replication and repair. Chromatin remodelling complexes alter the state of chromatin through a number of processes that includes chemical modifications of nucleosomes and sliding their position on DNA. Nucleosome sliding is catalysed by a number of protein complexes, one of which is the multi-subunit INO80 complex. INO80 contains an ATP-dependent translocase motor, that is common to all nucleosome sliders, but also a variety of other subunits, most of which have unknown roles. Furthermore, not only does it require two INO80 complexes interacting with a single nucleosome to promote sliding, but the complex also has an ability to "sense" the presence of other nucleosomes to space them evenly on DNA indicating interactions with multiple nucleosomes. The mechanism for this process is poorly understood, particularly at a molecular and structural level. INO80 is highly regulated in several distinct ways, including chemical modifications, small molecule effectors and subunit interactions but none of these are well understood. Finally, how the various subunits, many of which are ATPases in their own right, contribute to INO80 activities is also unclear.

Amount: £1,701,911
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Imperial College London

Growth and secretion by Campylobacter jejuni under anaerobic conditions 31 May 2018

Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis and thus poses a significant health risk. The bacteria is part of the natural microbiome of the chicken caecum where it appears to function as a non-invasive commensal but in the human intestine the organism becomes invasive and pathogenic. The Ó Cróinín group have recently reported that DNA supercoiling plays a key role in inducing this invasive phenotype and that relaxation of DNA supercoiling is associated with an increase in invasion and the appearance of an invasion associated secretive. This group have also unpublished data which reveals that DNA supercoiling allows the bacteria to survive and grow under anaerobic conditions which normally do not support growth. Given the anaerobic nature of some areas of the human intestine this could indicate that relaxation of DNA supercoiling could be critical in allowing this bacteria to both secrete virulence factors as well as to survive and grow under anaerobic conditions. The aim of this study is thus to investigate and characterise the effect of DNA supercoiling on the ability of the bacteria to grow under anaerobic conditions as well as to compare the secretion of proteins by microorganisms grown under anaerobic and microaerophilic conditions

Amount: £0
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College Dublin