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Funders:
The Wellcome Trust
Amounts:
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De-N-acetylation of cell wall chitin/pepitdoglycan as a defence mechanism against the mammalian immune system - structures, mechanisma and inhibitor development. 19 Jul 2006

One of the primary defences of the innate mammalian immune system against microbial pathogens is secretion of cell wall-targeted lytic glycoside hydrolases. Some of these enzymes, lysozymes (degrading peptidoglycan) and chitinases (degrading chitin), heavily depend on the presence of the N-acetyl side chains on N-acetylglucosamine for substrate recognition. Recent research has suggested that bacteria, fungi and microsporidia possess carbohydrate esterases ("family 4 carbohydrate esterases", CE-4) that partially de-N-acetylate cell wall peptidoglycan and chitin, thereby conferring microbial resistance against these mammalian glycoside hydrolases. Bacterial knockout studies of CE-4 esterases have shown that deletion of these genes results in hypersensitivity to lysozyme and dramatic reduction in virulence in a mouse model. This proposal aims to study the structure and molecular mechanism of action of microbial CE-4 esterases, screen small molecule libraries for inhibitors and synthesize potential leads using a combination of the resulting hits and rational design. These leads will then be tested in bacterial, fungal and microsporidian cultures in terms of resistance against lysozymes/chitinases and ultimately evaluated (through collaborations) in appropriate mouse models. Specifically, we will study the peptidoglycan deacetylases of the Streptococcus pneumoniae and the oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans, fungal chitin deacetylases from the pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus and the microsporidian chitin deacetylase from the pathogen Encephalitozoon cuniculi.

Amount: £500
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Bath

The creation and early workings of the Health Service "Ombudsman", 1968-1976: historical and archival research looking into the creation, and first remit, of the Health Service Commissioner. 23 Jan 2006

The creation and early workings of the Health Service "Ombudsman", 1968-1976: historical and archival research looking into the creation, and first remit, of the Health Service Commissioner This is an application for travel expenses, further to pursue research into the creation and early history of the National Health Service 'Ombudsman'. This is the body that, since the early 1970s, has provided an avenue of complaint against 'maladministration' in the NHS. The work should clearly reflect on to contemporary practice, for the Ombudsman was to become one of the most ubiquitous new tools of government in the late twentieth century. The project asks why this was so and where the pressure came from for this reform. This being so, it should cast light on the wider mechanics of British government and politics in the post-Second World War era. The applicant has already been pursuing research into the creation of the Parliamentary Commissioner for Administration. It is envisaged that this will lead to the submission of an article to Past in Present in 2007, covering the creation of the original Parliamentary 'Ombudsman'. It is now intended to take the research on a further stage, and build on the primary evidence assembled on the Parliamentary Commissioner. The first 'Ombudsman', Sir Edmund Compton, started work in 1967. The Health Service Commissioner was not created until 1973, when Sir Alan Marre as Compton's successor took on that role. Why was the Health Service initially insulated from the work of the Parliamentary Commissioner? Why did views change about that exclusion? Why did the process take so long? Did different departments have different views? These are the questions this research will seek to answer, utilising primary materials from government, MPs and political parties. Although there are admirable histories of the Ombudsman institution in general available, especially The Ombudsman, The Citizen and Parliament by Gregory and Giddings, this will be the first historical work systematically to utilise the archives and to find out the reasons for the creation of the NHS Ombudsman, as well as the delay in its inception following the creation of the Parliamentary Commissioner for Administration.

Amount: £901
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Oxford Brookes University

'History of Clinical Iatrogenesis: Before and After Ivan Illich' workshop to be held at the Wellcome Unit for the History of Medicine, University of Manchester on 19th May 2006. 22 May 2006

History of Clinical Iatrogenesis: Before and After Ivan Illich Precisely 30 years ago, the social critic Ivan Illich published his book Medical Nemesis: The Expropriation of Health, in which he presented several cases of iatrogenic diseases as a way to illuminate the intrinsic flaws of highly institutionalised, professionalised, technological modern medicine. He problematised modern medicine because, in his view, it deprived people of illness experiences and simultaneously inhibited autonomous efforts to maintain health. Since the publication of Medical Nemesis, critics from medical sociology, policy and even inside medicine engaged with Illich's ideas of 'iatrogenesis'. In contrast, there has hardly been any debate in the history of medicine. Although adverse effects of medicine had long been noted and commented on inside and outside medicine with words such as 'poisoning' and 'toxicity', the conditions that Ilich referred to as 'iatrogenic' diseases emerged in the post-war period, and they were correlated with the rise of new medical therapies, new technologies, the use of new drugs such as penicillin and cortisone, and surgical techniques such as organ transplantation. The term has resurfaced in the public domain more recently, in the context of morally- and politically-charged discussions over the (re-)emergence of infectious diseases such as MRSA and AIDS. This meeting has emerged from work on the Trust-funded grant on Fungal Diseases and Modern Medicine: Mycology, Aspergillosis and Iatrogenic Diseases.

Amount: £735
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Manchester

40 years of Family Research. 28 Mar 2006

Title of meeting: 40 years of Family Research Martin Richards has been an eminent researcher in many areas of family research and it is probably not an exaggeration to describe him as one of the pioneers in the field of psychological and social aspects of 'new' human genetics. He has raised important questions, developed research and contributed greatly in areas such as genetic screening, consent and bioethics. He has given generously of his time to serve on many committees in associated areas. The occasion of his retirement seems an appropriate time to reflect on his contributions and the way his work can be taken forward.

Amount: £750
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Cambridge

Providing medical care and the first general hospitals serving poor working residents of East Norfolk and Yarmouth. 22 Nov 2005

Thesis title: Providing medical care and the first General hospitals serving poor working residents of East Norfolk and Yarmouth This section will make use of material never available to researchers before and their investigation will produce answers on the following : The development and provision of medical care and hospitals for East Norfolk and Yarmouth's working poor, key questions answered will include - Who promoted hospitals and why did they do this? How did they achieve their aims? Who provided medical care and how was this applied to patients? What were the costs and how was such an establishment administered. If time permits the reaons behind enlargement development and rebuilding Yarmouth's General Hospital will be considered. Finally if considered appropriate the impact and working role of Yarmouth military hospitals including the Royal Naval Hospital will be investigated. Nothing has been written and published on any of these Yarmouth topics and original early documents now in my archive have never been available or used for research. So the final book will provide a new contribution to Norfolk's history. The final conclusion should chart progress and development in medical care for poor working people in Norfolk and the development of General Hospital over several centuries. Key issues and points will be made from material never used before and this will contribute to a wider range of knowledge.

Amount: £313
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Misc England

Understanding mechanisms of stress hyporesponsiveness in lactating females. 26 Apr 2006

Lactating females show attenuated neuroendocrine and behavioural responses to stress, thereby providing an innate model of stress hyporesponsiveness. We propose that understanding the mechanisms by which neuroendocrine responses to stress are naturally reduced, such as in lactating females, will provide the basis to develop treatments for stress and strategies to avoid stress. We hypothesise that attenuated stress responses during lactation are due to reduced synthesis and secretion of corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) and/or arginine vasopressin (AVP) from the hypothalamus as a result of increased negative feedback by cortisols. We also propose that oxytocin produced in the brain facilitates these mechanisms. Previous studies have examined mRNA levels as an index of response, but no-one has measured secretion of CRH and AVP. To test our hypothesis, we will directly measure steady-state levels of CRH and AVP mRNA and secretion of CRH and AVP in lactating and non-lactating females under basal and stress-induced conditions. Furthermore, we will establish the efficacy of cortisol feedback on CRH and AVP synthesis and secretion and will ascertain if oxytocin acts centrally to attenuate neuroendocrine responses to stress.

Amount: £862
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Bristol

The millennium lecture series. 14 Dec 2005

The Millennium Lecture Series The Millennium Lecture Series has been running for six years. The lecture series usually comprises of around 10 lectures from prominent scientists and runs from October to May. These lectures are free to students and the general public. The aim is to promote awareness of various sciences to the community and schools. This year's lectures boast another set of excellent speakers, including two eminent popularisers of science, Philip Ball and Marcus du Sautoy, and a Nobel Prize winner (Jean-Marie Lehn). This year we are also pleased to say that we have two very distinguished speakers in the field of the medical biosciences, Professor Richard Evershed, from the University of Bristol, and Professor Anthony Campbell, of the University of Wales College of Medicine. Professor Evershed will be giving a lecture on bioarchaeology on 21st November 2005. Professor Campbell will be giving a lecture on deep sea bioluminescence and its application to modern medicine on 12th December 2005. In the following two years we hope to attract equally distinguished scientists in biomedicine. Past speakers have included Sir Alec Jeffreys, Lord Robert Winston and Frances Ashcroft. Overall, the lecture series provides insight into a variety of science areas and the issues surrounding them, and encourages a wide range of people from disparate areas to participate in discussion of scientific issues and appreciate how science can be both interesting and valuable to modern society.

Amount: £680
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Bath

Conference entitled 'In the age of al-Farabi: Arabic thought in the 4th/10th Century'. 22 Nov 2005

In the Age of al-Farabi: Arabic Thought in the 4th/10th Century The proposed conference is one of a series of events focusing on philosophy in the Islamic world (we use the phrase "Arabic Philosophy" since some of the philosophers to be discussed were in fact Christian and Jewish). Previous events in this series have had a broader focus, dealing with a range of topics throughout the history of Arabic thought. But in order to produce as coherent an event as possible, this conference will focus more tightly on the most philosophically vibrant and historically important century in Arabic thought: the 10th century (the 4 century of the Islamic calendar). The purpose of this conference is to look at al-Farabi and other philosophers within the complex intellectual context of the 10th century itself. This involves two basic tasks: First, we will take account of the full range of philosophical schools and traditions of this time period. The most famous of these is the Aristotelian school in Baghdad; the Muslim al-Farabi was a member of this school, but most of these Aristotelians were in fact Christians. Several papers will be devoted to this school: those by Black, Eggert, Ferrari, Giannakis, Rashed, Reisman and Urvoy. A rival development were the more Platonist philosophers who lived and worked further east in the Islamic empire. The papers by Adamson, Biesterfeldt and Wakelnig will discuss these thinkers. Meanwhile, there are philosophical movements that are harder to classify - one of the goals of the conference will be to explore how other thinkers relate to the major trends of the period. Thus Fenton will speak on Jewish thinkers of the time, and there will be papers on the enigmatic "Brethren of Purity" and other authors with Shiite Ismaili leanings. Second, we will consider intellectual developments that were related to philosophy, without however involving thinkers who would necessarily have described themselves as "philosophers". There are three such developments to be explored: science, and especially medicine; the trend of refined literary authors who show knowledge of and interest in philosophical texts; and perhaps most importantly indigenous Islamic theology, or "kalam".

Amount: £516
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: King's College London

Cellular mechanisms invovled in the es. regulation of latency of herpesviruses. 20 Dec 2006

Cellular mechanisms involved in the regulation of latency of herpesviruses

Amount: £704
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Liverpool

Vacation Scholarships 2006. 30 Aug 2006

Not available

Amount: £80
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Misc England

illustrated lectures to members of the general public - with a direct link to the Wellcome Trust and the Wellcome Collection 16 May 2007

I have been taking my lectures on the History of the Origins of Vaccination to audiences of the general public in recent times, having also addressed meetings and conferences of professional groups for many years. These lectures and talks are based on my researches into the topic. My object in doing this is to make new historical information available to members of the public in an easily understood manner, creating a learning experience which is both interesting and entertaining. The actual and intended audiences include: History Groups, Local History Groups, WI Science Groups, national Women's Register Groups, The University of the Third Age (U3A), Probus, Museum Societies, The NADFAS Associated, Village Residents Societies, Universities, colleges and schools. Collaboration with the Wellcome Outreach initiative has been offered.

Amount: £600
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Misc England

'Developments in mental health since 1945: international and local perspectives' conference to be held at the University of Manchester on 23rd February 2007. 30 Jan 2007

Developments in mental health since 1945: international and local perspectives The workshop will address a neglected period in the history of psychiatry, offer much needed comparative perspectives and provide a forum for historians and practitioners to exchange ideas and develop common understandings. The workshop, which includes both British and North American perspectives, will focus on two main themes. Adult mental health services, with a particular emphasis on the experimental and non-traditional. Changing concepts of and responses to childhood behavioural and emotional disorders. The topics covered are: - Post-asylum geographies of mental illness - Post-war mental health services in Saskatchewan - Radical therapeutic communites post-68 - North Manchester Community Mental Health Services, 1982-96 - Approaches to Maladjusted Children in Britain, 1945-1955 - Child Therapy and Social Welfare 1945-1980 - The Role of ADHD Parent Support Groups in the US and the UK - Changing Accounts of Bad Behaviour in the American Journal of Psychiatry, 1950-2005

Amount: £500
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Manchester

Feminism and the body: an interdisciplinary conference. 30 Jan 2007

Feminism and the Body, an interdisciplinary conference 'Feminism and the Body, an interdisciplinary conference' will address issues that are at stake in the gendered politics of health and well being. Unique to this conference will be the range of research fields and disciplinary training that will converge on these issues. It will bring together scholars from the humanities, social sciences and medical sciences to share their expertise and disciplinary perspectives. In particular the event will promote critical discussions of the ways in which feminist theory has informed the research being presented, the ways that feminist engagements have shaped practices that relate to the body both historically and in the present, and the ways in which feminist thinking can best be developed as an analytic tool and an influence in the politics and practices of conceptualizing and engaging with bodies. Topics that will be covered by the conference include: ethical issues in antenatal screening technologies; the history of abortion; the impact of South Asian feminisms on women's health and well being; women's alcohol consumption in public space; experiences of domestic violence in pregnancy; the reproductive body and migration; representations of women's bodies in film, theatre and ballet; literary constructions of femininity and sexuality; child sexuality; the legacies of sexual difference feminism; feminist contributions to discussions of the ageing process; race and the different meanings of rape in Peru; issues of medico-legal ethics that arise where patients choose disability with pre-implantation genetic diagnosis; contemporary breastfeeding practices in Slovenia; cosmetic surgery; chemical treatments for vaginal secretions and skin whitening; decision making in relation to vasectomy; the historiography of rape and lynching in twentieth century America and eugenics in early twentieth-century Australia.

Amount: £540
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: King's College London

'PhD Workshop on History of Medieval and Early Modern Science and Medicine' to be held at the University of Cambridge on 23rd March 2007. 19 Feb 2007

PhD Workshop on History of Medieval and Early Modern Science and Medicine Although several excellent training programmes are available for PhD candidates, no specific support is available for students researching medieval and early modern science and medicine. These areas present particular challenges for students, often requiring the acquisition of language and palaeography skills, and the use of material which may be dispersed or incomplete. To address these problems, the workshop will open with a presentation on the issues which distinguish early history of science and medicine from other periods. This will be followed by a panel session on framing research questions from texts, objects, images, and quantitative data. After lunch, a second panel session will concentrate on acquiring or improving practical skills: languages (for instance, setting up support groups, such as Cambridge's Latin Therapy); palaeography; electronic resources; and approaching archives and collections. Each panel will be illustrated by texts and objects from the Whipple Museum's valuable collection of scientific and medical artefacts. The workshop will close with a Q&A session, in which participants will be encouraged to put questions to other students as well as to the panellists. Throughout, particular emphasis will be placed on student interaction and feedback. Feedback forms will be issued early on, with students encouraged to add to these throughout the day. They will also be asked to submit in advance an abstract of their research interests, which will be compiled in a booklet together with their contact details and a list of relevant PhD resources.

Amount: £602
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Cambridge

Role of cell surface proteins in the pathogenesis of Clostridium difficile. 15 Apr 2008

The aim of this project is to define C. difficile genes and gene products essential for adherence to host tissues. The objectives are: 1. To establish a robust model of adhesion of C. difficile to the cultured enteric CaCo2 cell line. 2. To further study adhesion using in vitro organ cultures of hamster gut. 3. To create knock-out mutants of defined genes in C. difficile and to analyse their behaviour in the adhesion models of the bacterium with host tissues. Genes and gene products identified as important for adhesion will be further studied using molecular and biochemical techniques.

Amount: £869
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Imperial College London

'The importance of medical history: Transnational and cross-cultural perspectives on a multi-faceted discipline' conference to be held in Mumbai, India from 15th to 17th November 2007. 17 Oct 2007

The importance of medical history: Trans-national and cross-cultural perspectives on a multi-faceted discipline The proposed meeting will be the first of its type in the South Asian sub-continent - dealing with the important questions of historical method and historiography, from trans-national and cross-disciplinary perspectives; it will allow the audience access to a plethora of perspectives on how to study HOM. The projected audience will be university and college teaching, research and administrative staff of all grades, we well as undergraduate and post-graduate students, doctors, print and TV journalists, and independent researchers. A number of well-known scholars have agreed to attend the meeting, as they acknowledge the usefulness of an event like this in popularising HOM in an important education centre in Asia. These academics, who are attached to a number of Wellcome Trust-funded units, will draw upon an important item of their research - dealing with Europe, North America, Asia and further afield - to develop trans-national perspectives of how to study HOM. This meeting will engender a lot of discussion, which is critically important for an endeavour that seeks to provide new insights to post-and under-graduate teachers about important international developments in the discipline, and the most effective ways of teaching and carrying out research. Themes to be covered: History of pharmacology; Anatomy; Global trade and medicine; Medical genetics and gender; Medicine in the early modern period; Public health in 19th and 20th centuries; Global health programmes and disease eradication; War and medicine; International perspectives on rabies; Scottish doctors and British empire; Obstetrics and surgery; Cross-disciplinary perspectives on leprosy and empire; Hospitals; Medicine and 'witchcraft' in the early modern period; Healthcare in colonial Mumbai/India; Health of industrial labour; Oral histories of contemporary medicine and biological science; History of medical practice and multiple meanings of health.

Amount: £600
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College London

Multivariate genome-wide association study (GWAS) of reading and mathematics disabilities/abilities: A quantitative trait locus (QTL) perspective. 12 Jan 2008

A multivariate QTL GWAS is proposed that will use quantitative trait data from a battery of reading and mathematics measures from 4000 12-year-old twins participating in the UK Twins Early Development Study (TEDS). The QTL perspective follows from quantitative genetic research that suggests that reading and mathematics disabilities are the quantitative extremes of the same genes that affect normal variation in reading and mathematics abilities. The multivariate perspective follows from quantitative genetic research that suggests that the same set of genes affects reading and mathematics abilities and disabilities. Both the QTL and multivariate features of the proposed research will increase power to identify SNPs associated with reading and mathematics. The other twin from each of the 4000 twin pairs will provide a replication sample perfectly matched for age and other demographic characteristics and assessed with exactly the same measures for the purpose of replicating SNPs identified in the WTCCC GWAS. At the replication stage, the design will have 80% power to replicate SNP associations that account for 0.25% of the total variance of the quantitative trait. The rich TEDS dataset will make it possible to use these SNPs in 'behavioural genomic' analyses to investigate developmental, multivariate and gene-environment interplay issues.

Amount: £350
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: King's College London

'Urban Health in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries' seminar series to be held in 2008 at Glasgow Caledonian University. 19 Dec 2007

This is the second 'themed' seminar series to be organized by the CSHHH; and the success of that held in autumn 2007 attests to the validity of this approach. For spring 2008 the broad theme is 'urban health in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries', an important issue which nonetheless has not been dealt with in any systematic way in recent Scottish conferences/seminar series. The notion of 'urban health' has been broadly construed and this has enabled us to bring to the series a group of historians with differing research and publication interests, but whose work nonetheless has much to tell us about health and social conditions, and the treatment of 'problems' in these areas, in the towns and cities of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

Amount: £698
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Glasgow Caledonian University

Conservation of 2 volumes of patient records from the Alexandra Hospital for Children with Hip Disease. 15 Apr 2008

conservation of 2 volumes of patient records from the Alexandra Hospital for Children with Hip Disease

Amount: £181
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Barts Health NHS Trust