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The Wellcome Trust
University College London
University of Edinburgh
£500 - £1,000


The World Health Organization and the social determinants of health: assessing theory, policy and practice (an international conference). 29 Aug 2008

The World Health Oraganisation and the Social Determinants of Health: Assessing theory, policy and practice (An international conference).

Amount: £850
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College London

'The importance of medical history: Transnational and cross-cultural perspectives on a multi-faceted discipline' conference to be held in Mumbai, India from 15th to 17th November 2007. 17 Oct 2007

The importance of medical history: Trans-national and cross-cultural perspectives on a multi-faceted discipline The proposed meeting will be the first of its type in the South Asian sub-continent - dealing with the important questions of historical method and historiography, from trans-national and cross-disciplinary perspectives; it will allow the audience access to a plethora of perspectives on how to study HOM. The projected audience will be university and college teaching, research and administrative staff of all grades, we well as undergraduate and post-graduate students, doctors, print and TV journalists, and independent researchers. A number of well-known scholars have agreed to attend the meeting, as they acknowledge the usefulness of an event like this in popularising HOM in an important education centre in Asia. These academics, who are attached to a number of Wellcome Trust-funded units, will draw upon an important item of their research - dealing with Europe, North America, Asia and further afield - to develop trans-national perspectives of how to study HOM. This meeting will engender a lot of discussion, which is critically important for an endeavour that seeks to provide new insights to post-and under-graduate teachers about important international developments in the discipline, and the most effective ways of teaching and carrying out research. Themes to be covered: History of pharmacology; Anatomy; Global trade and medicine; Medical genetics and gender; Medicine in the early modern period; Public health in 19th and 20th centuries; Global health programmes and disease eradication; War and medicine; International perspectives on rabies; Scottish doctors and British empire; Obstetrics and surgery; Cross-disciplinary perspectives on leprosy and empire; Hospitals; Medicine and 'witchcraft' in the early modern period; Healthcare in colonial Mumbai/India; Health of industrial labour; Oral histories of contemporary medicine and biological science; History of medical practice and multiple meanings of health.

Amount: £600
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College London

No time for panic: British responses to influenza in peace and war, 1889-1919 29 Aug 2008

The 1918 influenza pandemic represents the worst outbreak of infectious disease in Britain in modern times. Although the virus swept the world in three waves between March 1918 and April 1919, in Britain the majority of the estimated 228,000 fatalities occurred in the autumn of 1918. In London alone deaths at the peak of the epidemic were 55.5 per 1,000- the highest since the 1849 cholera epidemic. Yet in the capital as in other great cities and towns throughout Britain, there was none of the panic that had accompanied earlier 19th century outbreaks of infectious disease at the heart of urban populations. Instead, the British response to the 'Spanish Lady' as the pandemic strain of flu was familiarly known was remarkably sanguine. As The Times commented at the height of the pandemic: 'Never since the Black Death has such a plague swept over the face of the world, [and] never, perhaps, has a plague been more stoically accepted.' The apparent absence of marked social responses to the 1918 influenza is a phenomenon much remarked on in the literature of the pandemic, as is the apparent paradox that despite the widespread morbidity and high mortality the pandemic had little apparent impact on public institutions and left few traces in public memory. However, to date no one has explored the deeper cultural 'narratives' that informed and conditioned these responses. Was Britain really a more stoical and robust nation in 1918, or was the absence of medical and other social responses a reflection of the particular social and political conditions that prevailed in Britain during the First World War and then medical nosologies and cultural perceptions of influenza? And if the 1918 pandemic was 'overshadowed,' as one writer puts it, by the war and the peace that followed the Armistice, what explains the similarly muted response to the Russian flu pandemic of the early 1890's, a disease outbreak that coincided with a long period of peace and stability in Britain? In this project I aim to show that, contrary to previous studies, both the 1918 and the 1889-92 Russian flu pandemic were the objects of much deeper public concern and anxiety than has previously been acknowledged and that the morbidity of prominent members of British society, coupled with the high mortality, occasioned widespread 'dread' and in some cases alarm. However, in 1918 at least, government departments and public institutions actively suppressed these concerns for the sake of the war effort and the maintenance of national morale.

Amount: £657
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College London

Quarantine and typhus in the writing of Elizabeth Gaskell. 25 Mar 2013

This grant is requested to cover travel, subsistence, and photocopying costs for two research trips to the Wellcome Library. I will spend two weeks in February and one week in March 2013 conducting research into (i) nineteenth-century quarantine legislation and procedures in Britain (ii) nineteenth-century typhus epidemics, their association with military campaigns and the Irish famine, and William Jenner's differentiation of typhus and typhoid in 1850. There will be two research outputs: (i) an essay on quarantine and typhus in Elizabeth Gaskell's 1853 novel 'Ruth' to be published in the forthcoming edited collection 'Place, Progress, and Personhood in the Works of Elizabeth Gaskell', edited by Emily Morris, Sarina Gruver Moore, and Lesa Scholl; (ii) a conference presentation on quarantine, mobility and typhus epidemics in Gaskell's writing at the joint conference of the North American Victorian Studies Association, the British Association of Victorian Studies, and the Australasian Vi ctorian Studies Association in June 2013. I am also proposing a paper based on this research for the Association for Medical Humanities conference in July 2013, for which the conference theme is Global Medical Humanities.

Amount: £552
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Edinburgh

Protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions in the glycolytic pathway. 20 May 2011

T. brucei is a small parasite that causes African trypanisomiasis, commonly known as sleeping sickness, in humans and nagana in cattle in Africa. It has life cycle stages in both the mammalian host and the tsetse fly vector and makes several morphological and biochemical changes when migrating between the two. The mechanisms and control of cell proliferation and differentiation is essential to the life cycle of the parasite and thus understanding the details of these processes is important for the discovery of new drug targets to combat this disease. The genome of T. brucei and other related parasites have been sequenced and many biochemical and genetic tools are available to enable molecular dissection of the genes involved in cell division and differentiation. Previous studies of the structural mechanics of cell division have provided us with some understanding of the temporal and spatial organisation of the cell organelle and cytoskeletal structures [1]. However, much more needs to be understood about the three-dimensional spatial organisation of the cytoskeletal structures and how co-ordination of assembly and cytokinesis is performed in order to better understand the phenotypes presented by the molecular dissection experiments. During my 10 week project I used scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunofluorescence microscopy, and video microscopy to gain more insight into cytoskeletal organisation during cell division, and to compare the processes in the procyclic and the bloodstream forms of the parasite. SEM and video microscopy revealed important differences between the procyclic and bloodstream forms during cell division regarding attachment and growth of the new flagellum, the degree of staggering of the daughter cells during cleavage furrow ingression and the nature of the cytoplasmic connection between the two daughter cells, present just before cell abscission. Fluorescent labelling of ?-tubulin and TEM images provided some evidence for the presence of microtubules in the cytoplasmic connection in the procyclic form, although more evidence is needed.

Amount: £585
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Edinburgh