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Intercalated BSc Awars 2007/8 19 Sep 2007

Not available

Amount: £37,310
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Royal Veterinary College

Student electives for Gina Hadley, Clare Webb, Zoeb Jiwaji, Emily Parker and Jonarthan Thevanayagam. 18 Jul 2007

Malaria is one of the deadliest infectious parasitic diseases. Combination therapy, which has already been introduced in Kenya may not address the problem of the ability of the parasite to quickly select for resistance against antimalarial drugs, due to the detrimental effect of disparate pharmacokinetic profiles of drugs used. Strategies have to be devised to tackle the drug resistance. One such strategy is to predict and monitor the emergence and the spread of drug resistance parasite before drug resistance become s a problem. As Co-artem® has already been introduced in Kenya, the information that this project will provide is vital.

Amount: £5,600
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Student elective for Ahmad Moola, Mayooran Shanmuganathan & Oliver Todd. 11 Jun 2007

Over 25,000 British Muslims are amongst the 2 million who perform the annual Hajj pilgrimage to Saudi Arabia, making it the largest annual gathering on earth. Consequently, the Hajj poses a number of important public health challenges. Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are thought to be the most common illness affecting up to 33% of pilgrims. A number of factors unique to the Hajj, from overcrowding to heat exhaustion, heighten the risk of transmission of RTIs. These include: (a) The various states of health of pilgrims arriving from an estimated 140 countries, each from their own, ethnic, linguistic and social backgrounds bringing the endemic illness associated with their subpopulations, (b) Overcrowding, in particular those associated with the rites of the Hajj, results in pilgrims sharing accommodation, often with up to 150 per tent, in the desert plains of Mina and Arafat; (c) Inadequate nutrition, (d) Poor accessibility to clean drinking water; (e) Heat exhaustion - it is not unknown for the desert temperatures to reach 400C; (f) The considerable physical exertion and travel, often undertaken by foot, necessary to fulfil the rites of the Hajj. Furthermore, as Islam is governed by the lunar calendar, the Hajj falls 11 days earlier each year. Currently it falls in the winter season when RTIs are most prevalent. With current opinion that a global influenza pandemic is imminent and the findings of avian influenza in humans including in Indonesia, the world's most populous Muslim nation, experts suggest current public health measures are inadequate to cope with such an outbreak.

Amount: £4,200
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Imperial College London

Student electives for Mostayn Alam and James Myerscough. 28 May 2007

Hydrocephalus is a condition in which abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain causes increased intracranial pressure inside the skull. This is usually due to blockage of CSF outflow in the brain ventricles or in the subarachnoid space at the base of the brain. Chronic hydrocephalus (CH) is characterized by increased cerebrospinal fluid volume with or without increased intracranial pressure (ICP), and often associated with impaired cognition thought to be related to decrease cerebral blood flow and oxygen delivery. In hydrocephalus, increased ICP and vascular compression as the result of enlarged ventricles may be directly responsible. VEGF plays a critical role in angiogenesis, neuronal protection as it relates to ischemic/hypoxic events.

Amount: £2,600
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Southampton

Student elective prize for Jemima Tagal. 18 Apr 2007

Factors affecting treatment compliance in patients with spinal tuberculosis - demographics, clinical features and treatment regimens Patient compliance with treatment is a major factor in determining a successful outcome, especially in patients with tuberculosis (TB). Non-compliance results in treatment failure, disease relapse, and drug resistance. Malaysia has adopted the WHO Directly Observed Treatment, Short Course (DOTS) programme in an effort to reduce the national TB incidence. Despite this, local compliance with treatment remains a problem. Spinal TB is quite common in Malaysia, and has an extremely high morbidity. The local demographical, clinical and treatment regimen factors that may affect compliance with anti-TB treatment in Malaysia has not been analysed in patients with spinal TB. Aims of project: Consider the local demographics of patients with tuberculosis of the spine Compare the demographical and clinical features, and treatment regimens of compliant and non-compliant patients with tuberculosis of the spine The ultimate aim of this study is to identify patients at higher risk of defaulting anti-TB treatment to serve as a basis for planning health promotive interventions.

Amount: £1,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Cardiff University

Renewal: The effects of helminths and of de-worming in pregnancy and early childhood on the incidence of allergic disease events and on atopic sensitisation in young children. 19 Mar 2007

The impact of helminths on the response to immunisation and on susceptibility to infectious diseases in childhood in Uganda The programme comprises a cohort study, designed to examine effects of helminths and antihelminthic interventions in pregnancy and in early childhood on the immune response to childhood vaccines and on the incidence of infectious diseases in childhood. The intention is to establish a cohort in which the long term effect of these exposures can be clearly elucidated. Participants are drawn from Entebbe Municipality and the adjacent sub-county of Katabi. The population of this area is diverse, including fishing and farming, as well as urban and semi-urban communities, some very poor, some wealthy commuters with high-level office positions in the capital city, Kampala. Data from the programme will therefore be of interest in relation to several current hypotheses regarding lifestyle and risk factors for allergy but, by its design, provides a particular opportunity to examine the effects of helminths and their treatment on allergic conditions. The programme provides a lively, stimulating, multidisciplinary environment, ideal for training in epidemiological studies that involve socio-economic, clinical and immunological exposures and outcomes. Staff include four physicians employed full-time, with participation from hospital-based physicians, midwives and nurses. The research team participates in antenatal care, including a programme for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission, and the candidate has led an evaluation of this programme, and taken part in additional studies of factors affecting perinatal mortality. There is a large component of community work, with 80 village assistants who visit participating babies every two weeks and report at monthly meetings. There is a significant laboratory component, with three scientific officers and two technicians working on immunological assays to assess immune responses to helminths, vaccines and pathogens within the framework of the cohort study.

Mechanisms underlying the association between Plasmodium falciparum malaria and non-typhoidal salmonella bacteraemia in African children. 27 Oct 2006

An association between Plasmodium falciparum malaria and non-typhoidal salmonella (NTS) bacteraemia in African children has long been recognised, although the underlying immunological mechanisms are poorly understood. In particular, NTS bacteraemia is associated with severe malarial anaemia (SMA) and can result in increased mortality. Erythrophagocytosis of malaria-parasitised red blood cells (PRBC) is a major cause of this anaemia and ingestion of the malaria pigment haemozoin has been shown to impair monocyte/macrophage (mo/mF) function in vitro. NTS are adapted to survive within mo/mFs and their elimination requires a TH1-cytokine response as well as activation of the oxidative burst in mo/ mFs. Recent evidence from studies of severe malaria in Gabon together with animal studies suggest that TH1-immunity is depressed in SMA. Hypotheses: 1. That SMA leads to a specific defect in the immune system resulting in increased susceptibility to NTS bacteraemia. Potential mechanisms include a) the direct effect of haemozoin on mo/mFs causing decresed phagocytosis, inhibition of oxidative burst, impaired secretion of IL-12 and decreased reponse to IFN? and b) a deficient TH1-cytokine response. 2. That the source of NTS bacteraemia is latent NTS infection of macrophages in the reticuloendothelial system (RES). Investigations: Immunological techniques will be used to assess TH1 activity and capacity, and mo/ mF function in SMA, and microbiological and molecular techniques will be used to look for a NTS carrier state.

Amount: £10,190
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Liverpool

The effect of maternal health, fetal size and early childhood growth on cardiovascular (CVS) development in Nigerian children. 05 Dec 2006

In Nigeria, there is an escalating frequency of hypertension. Mortality from cardiovascular (CVS) causes is expected to rise to 70% in adults by the year 2020. It is not clear why this is happening, although improvements in lifestyle are recognised It is recognised in many studies worldwide that thereis an inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure. Furthermore malaria, which is still hyperendemic and common in pregnant women,causes maternal anemia and low birth-weight which, as in many experimental models, may predispose to increased vascular disease in the offspring. Consequently, we aim to test in Nigerian infants hypotheses that will examine the relationships between malaria in pregnancy, size at birth and early growthpatterns (in particular 'catch-up growth') on blood pressure and aortic pulse wave velocity (as a measure of vascular distensibility) at 2 years of age. We will also measure insulin, insulin-like growth factors and inflammatory markers in the first years of life as possible mediators of CVS development. This study should indicate whether adverse trends in CVS development are occurring in early life in Nigeria and help to develop effective preventive strategies with available limited resources.

Amount: £426,810
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Manchester

Hospitals and the Development of Modern Medicine in Iran from the Early Nineteenth Century until the Beginning of the Second World War. 31 Aug 2007

This project proposes to explore the development of modern medicine in Iran from the early nineteenth century until the beginning of the Second World War, testing the hypothesis that social and political evolution throughout this period constituted the driving force in the emergence of modern medicine. The three major factors involved in this evolution were: the military, the Constitutional Revolution (1906-11), and the religious establishment. In the nineteenth century, military modernisation provided the major impetus for medical modernisation. In the twentieth century, however, other socio-political factors became prominent in this process: the Constitutional Revolution went hand in hand with the growth of civil society and of nationalism. At this period, medical modernisation responded to the growing consciousness about bodily and environmental health. Under Reza Shah (1925- 41), nationalism became the ideological force behind centralisation of power and medical modernisation responded both to the centralisation of power and increasing demand for social welfare. It was within the framework of these socio-political developments that waqf (charitable endowments) were increasingly donated for hospital construction and maintenance, while they had mostly been reserved for religious purposes during the nineteenth century.

Amount: £14,308
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Southampton
Amount: £379,955
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Misc England

Value in People award. 18 Jul 2007

Not available

Amount: £300,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Value in People award. 18 Jul 2007

Not available

Amount: £150,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of York

Value in People award. 18 Jul 2007

Not available

Amount: £200,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Leicester

Value in People award. 18 Jul 2007

Not available

Amount: £300,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Dundee

Value in People award. 18 Jul 2007

Not available

Amount: £150,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Value in People. 18 Jul 2007

Not available

Amount: £300,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Bristol

The Wellcome Centre for Molecular Parasitology 20 Dec 2006

The Wellcome Centre for Molecular Parasitology The Centre originated in 1987, when Anty Tait and Dave Barry were funded by the Wellcome Trust to set up the Wellcome Unit of Molecular Parasitology, to apply molecular, genetic and biochemical technologies to the investigation of basic questions in the biology of parasites. The Unit had some core funding and was based in the Dept Veterinary Parasitology (Tait) and the Institute of Genetics (Barry), on separate campuses of the University of Glasgow. In 1994, via a grant for the Wellcome Trust, the Unit was amalgamated in new laboratories in the Anderson College. At the quinquennial review in 1998, the Unit applied successfully for Wellcome Trust Centre status. In June 2005, the Centre will move to the new Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre (JIIF/SRIF funded), along with immunobiologists and structural biologists. The Centre is a hub of parasitologists using a wide range of modern approaches to understanding aspects of the organismal biology of parasites. Its missions are: Form a centre of excellence for the molecular and genetic study of parasites Provide and sustain a modern laboratory environment Provide quality research training for science and veterinary graduates. The Centre has 8 research groups (and Acosta-Serrano from Sept 2003), studying mainly 5 parasite genera and the free-living nematode C. elegans, an excellent model for parasitic nematodes, which are diffi8uclt to study. Its research programmes are integrated into three of these themes. The first is the generation of diversity, which is core to the success of parasites. The second, which overlaps with the first, is the control and synthesis of surface molecules, many of which are key to host-parasite interaction. The third is differentiation through the life and cell cycle, steps essential for colonisation of, and transmission between, hosts. Due to the several levels of discussion within the Centre, there is much exchange of ideas within each theme and several of the groups have major collaborations, through to publication level.

Amount: £12,125
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Glasgow