- Total grants
- Total funders
- Total recipients
- Earliest award date
- 09 Jun 1998
- Latest award date
- 05 May 2020
- Total GBP grants
- Total GBP awarded
- Largest GBP award
- Smallest GBP award
- Total Non-GBP grants
Verbal Autopsy with Participatory Action Research (VA-PAR): Developing a people-centred health systems research methodology. 25 Mar 2015
People-centred health systems (PCHS) is a recent progressive shift that has moved thinking beyond building-blocks models of health systems towards ones that centralise a human and relational nature. Despite the conceptual advance, empirical methods are lacking. The project seeks to develop methods for conducing and using Verbal Autopsy (VA) consistent with a PCHS approach by combining VA with Participatory Action Research (PAR) in a process connected to the health system at different levels. VA is a health surveillance technique that provides information on levels and causes of mortality in populations where deaths occur outside facilities and/or without registration. PAR is a process that aims to transform the roles of those participating from objects of research to active researchers and agents of change. It systematises local experience through collective analysis to generate valid forms of evidence on the relationships between health problems and their causes. Three phases of research are proposed. In Phase 1, we will conduct a secondary analysis of data gained through the application of the 2012 WHO VA standard in a Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS) in rural South Africa. Combing data on medical causes with new data on background characteristics of deaths, we will develop improved ways to classify causes in a method suitable for use at sub-district/district level. In Phase 2, local service users and providers will engage in a PAR process to review the results of Phase 1, set priorities for local services, and explore the potential for co-benefits related to empowerment and social inclusion. The final Phase 3 aims to consult at higher levels of the health system to consider how the method could be further applied and evaluated. The overall output is a practical and integrated methodology based on core standards that is contextually relevant and capable of affecting health gains by translating local priorities into actionable public health agendas.
Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), a unique intracellular pathogen that can infect only humans. The molecular mechanisms underlying this host-specificity are still poorly understood. My research takes advantage of a powerful combination of cutting-edge experimental approaches to explore the host-pathogen molecular interface. Using these approaches I identified a novel trafficking pathway that blocks S. Typhi survival in macrophages from non-susceptible hosts , e.g. mice. This pathway, which depends on the Rab32 GTPase, is emerging as a general antimicrobial pathway critical for killing intracellular pathogens. The differences in this pathway between mice and humans likely underpin the successful infection of humans by S. Typhi. My preliminary data, backed by genome-wide association studies, suggest that this pathway is active in humans but there must be substantial differences to account for the different host susceptibilities. The objectives of thi s project are to: 1) determine the role of the Rab32 antimicrobial pathway in controlling pathogen growth in humans; and 2) elucidate the mechanisms that promote killing of S. Typhi in human macrophages. These studies will empower a larger study to identify novel S. Typhi virulence factors and to suggest ways to boost innate immunity pathways to control bacterial diseases.
C-type lectins in antifungal immunity 03 Dec 2013
Over the last decade, in research funded primarily by the Wellcome Trust, my group hasestablished that C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) are critical for protective antifungal immunity .Yet our understanding of the roles of these receptors remains in its infancy, despite thetherapeutic potential that this knowledge could offer. Over the next five years, I will build on ourexciting recent observations to answer three fundamentally important questions:I. Which systems driven by Dectin-1 and other myeloid-expressed CLRs are required forprotective antifungal immunity?II. How does costimulation of CLRs with other pattern recognition receptors (PRRs)mediate protective immunity and pathology?III. Does MelLec and other epithelial cell CLRs contribute to antifungal immunity?
High throughput quantitative proteomics is an essential component of the contemporary experimental toolbox, and is critical for world-leading research programmes in the College of Life Sciences and Medicine at Aberdeen University. The Aberdeen Proteomics Facility was established 16 years ago and is manned by staff with vast experience of high quality proteomics service provision and training in quantitative proteomics, including SILAC and label-free approaches. The Facility provides a rang e of proteomics services to local and external users, including protein identifications, whole protein analyses, MALDI imaging and biotyping. To satisfy local research demand, the Facility needs more advanced equipment to extend our capabilities to high throughput, in-depth, quantitative analyses of specific proteomes, which is not currently possible in the Facility. Therefore, we are requesting a Q Exactive mass spectrometer and high throughput proteomic sample preparation robots. Our key objectives are: 1. To purchase a Q Exactive mass spectrometer and proteomics sample preparation robotics for the Aberdeen Proteomics Facility. 2. Exploit this equipment to provide cutting-edge proteomics services and bespoke proteomics training that empower a wide range of biomedical research programmes at Aberdeen University and other institutions. 3. To ensure the long term sustainability of this equipment by implementing appropriate cost-recovery mechanisms.
Long term outcomes of acute kidney injury - Establishing prognosis to design optimal management. 25 Nov 2013
Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is common, affecting up to 20% of unscheduled hospital admissions. It is associated with poor patient outcomes; high mortality, protracted hospital length of stay and significant morbidity. There is wide variation in clinical practice and associated outcomes. It is expensive and represents a major burden on global healthcare. For those that recover to discharge from hospital the long-term is uncertain with increased mortality and subsequent risk of progressive loss of renal function leading to renal replacement therapy. There is a substantial gap in our knowledge of what factors and interventions affect both short and long term outcomes. Consequently current guidance lacks clarity, clinical applicability and has a poor evidence base. This fellowship focuses on investigating the factors influencing long-term outcomes after AKI. It aims to improve care through the development of prediction tools that will guide optimum practice and support healthcare planning. The proposal utilises two large population-based cohorts established in 2003. Novel data linkage to a central laboratory system together with access to routine administrative healthcare information and specialist registry data will enable detailed characterisation of patients and outcomes. With this information we will develop risk stratification models relevant to clinical practice.
Overcoming nutritional immunity: micronutrient acquisition mechanisms of pathogenic fungi. 06 Nov 2013
During infection, mammalian hosts restrict the availability of key micronutrients in a process called nutritional immunity. Pathogens, therefore, must possess specialised, high affinity micronutrient acquisition systems to grow in the human body and cause disease. The first aim of this project is to characterise the molecular mechanisms of micronutrient uptake and intracellular mobilisation in pathogenic fungi. I will identify these components using a combination of bioinformatics, transcriptomi cs and high throughput screening of mutant libraries. The phenotypes of C. albicans mutants lacking micronutrient scavengers will be examined. The second aim will be to assess the contribution of these genes to resisting host enforced nutritional immunity. This will be achieved by testing C. albicans mutants in defined cell culture infection models, tailored to mimic specific aspects of nutritional immunity. The third aim is to define the impact of micronutrient exploitation on the outcome of in fection. I will use animal models to elucidate the contribution of selected C. albicans genes towards commensal colonisation and invasive infection. Furthermore, I will use the information gathered in C. albicans to investigate the function of conserved components in other pathogenic fungi. This will validate whether the identified pathways represent broad-spectrum therapeutic targets.
Two-day international, multidisciplinary workshop on migration and health - particularly mental health - in historical and contemporary contexts, to be held at the University of Aberdeen, April 2014. 18 Nov 2013
The application is for support towards the costs of a two-day workshop, to be held at the University of Aberdeen from 10-11 April 2014. The primary theme of the workshop is Migration and Mental Health and it will explore in greater depth issues that were raised at a panel session on migration which was held during the annual Association for Medical Humanities conference in Aberdeen in July 2013. It will also build, more specifically, on a two-day symposium to be held in Halifax, Nova Scotia, in November 2013. The Canadian event, which is being co-organised by the applicant under the auspices of Saint Mary's University, Halifax, and the Gorsebrook Research Institute for Atlantic Canada Studies, is entitled Medicine and Migration: historical & contemporary dimensions. Canadian speakers will be joined by the applicant and another speaker from the UK. Aberdeen University is at the forefront of Medical Humanities in Scotland and the workshop will strengthen that profile. The applicant is e ngaged in collaborative interdisciplinary work with colleagues in Aberdeen, elsewhere in Scotland, the UK, and overseas. The workshop, which is expected to attract approximately 25 participants, will enhance and expand these networks and highlight a marginalised area of study.
Scottish Consortium TMaT Programme: 'Does mesenchymal stem cell-mediated synovial hyperplasia after traumatic joint surface injury affect the development of secondary osteoarthritis?' 29 Aug 2014
Apart from symptomatic relief through analgesics or joint replacement surgery no existing treatment prevents or reverses the development of osteoarthritis. Traumatic osteoarthritis is a result of injury to the joint from trauma or damage from abnormal joint biomechanics. We will investigate the role of the transcriptional co activator Yes-Associated Protein (YAP), a downstream target of the Hippo Pathway, in the post-traumatic synovial hyperplasia sustained by the proliferation of label-retaining mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) following traumatic joint injuries. We will correlate temporal expression patterns of YAP and MSC proliferation in tissues obtained from joint trauma patients and in a mouse model of traumatic joint injury with development of posttraumatic osteoarthritis. Using in vitro and in vivo knockdown experiments we will establish whether YAP is required for MSC proliferation and synovial hyperplasia. By creating mouse models that allow conditional knockout experiments of YAP and using the joint injury models of post-traumatic osteoarthritis we will establish whether inactivation of YAP following joint surface injury affects OA development. This would validate YAP preclinically as a potential drug target to prevent the development of post-traumatic OA.
The cell wall of fungal pathogens determines their pathobiology and immunological signature. It is the ideal target for chemotherapies and immunotherapies because all the major cell wall components are essential and fungal-specific. My vision is to innovate and inform therapeutic strategies through an understanding of how the cell wall is assembled and recognised by the immune system. My group are world leaders in the analysis of the major human pathogen Candida albicans, and have made fundam ental advances in cell wall biology. These foundations enable two major new research questions to be addressed, each with translatable outcomes. (i) What are the key assembly processes and functions of the extended gene families that articulate cell wall assembly? To answer this, I will exploit recent advances in C. albicans genetics to pioneer forward genetic methods using recently discovered haploid strains. Novel screens, phenotyping methods and in vitro synthetic biology approaches w ill be deployed to dissect the functions of key families of cell wall genes. (ii) What is the fine chemical structure of cell wall molecules that stimulate, attenuate and imprint the innate and adaptive responses of the immune system? I will use novel, bespoke reagents and combinations of host and pathogen functional analysis tools to study the key immunologically relevant cell wall glycoconjugates. These complementary research questions will result in major advances in our understanding of therapeutically tractable targets of the cell wall, and will inform the design of new generations of therapeutics and diagnostics.
'Global Medical Humanities': The Annual Conference of the Association for Medical Humanities. 18 Jan 2013
The application is for support towards the costs of the annual Association for Medical Humanities conference, to be held at the University of Aberdeen from 8 to 10 July 2013. The University has been at the forefront of the development of Medical Humanities in Scotland but this will be the first time that the Association has come to Aberdeen for its annual conference. The theme of the conference is 'Global Medical Humanities'. We anticipate that there will be over 100 participants in the confe rence with at least 60 speakers. The deadline for the submission of paper, panel and poster proposals is 1 February 2013. There will be a combination of student, early career academic, established academic, and professional healthcare practitioner speakers. We have invited five plenary speakers and five panel speakers. The invited speakers are from India, South Africa, the United States of America, and the United Kingdom. We also have, to date (17/12/12), eleven confirmed themed panel sessio ns. Funding from the Wellcome Trust will be used towards invited plenary and invited panel speaker costs, and to defray the travel, registration, and accommodation costs for some student delegates. Aberdeen University will contribute to the costs of room and equipment hire.
Transmission electron microscopy with tomography for studies of cellular ultrastructure. 22 May 2012
We request funding to purchase a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) with tomography to allow high resolution study of cellular ultrastructure and perform 3-dimensional imaging of bone, fungal, bacterial and immune cells. The equipment will significantly develop our capabilities for ultrastructural research, which have recently benefitted from acquisition of a modern Scanning EM. Our EM facility is used extensively by Wellcome Trust funded research groups including those supported by four se parate Wellcome Trust Programme Grants, a Strategic Award and several project grants. The equipment will be housed in a purpose-built facility for TEM in the Institute of Medical Sciences, adjacent to facilities for confocal microscopy, live cell imaging and SEM. Facilities for tissue preparation and ultrathin sectioning are located nearby and are fully equipped with state-of-the art instrumentation. The equipment requested comprises a modern TEM, tomography equipment, appropriate software and 5 -years warranty. We have University funded technical staff with extensive TEM expertise in place to run the equipment and have established collaborations with experts in TEM tomography to provide advice and training. By enhancing and complementing our existing imaging equipment this equipment will bring substantial added value to Wellcome Trust and other funded programmes in basic and translational research at Aberdeen.
Mode of delivery after caesarean section: An investigation of offspring risks and factors influencing women's attitudes towards delivery options. 21 Jun 2012
This project aims to address major issues associated with our ever increasing caesarean section (C/S) rate. Offspring risks of elective repeat caesarean section (ERCS) will be studied, including medical conditions potentially associated with a lack of exposure to labour and delivery. Factors which affect attitudes towards mode of delivery in a first pregnancy and following a C/S will be investigated, along with the effect of these factors on intended and eventual delivery mode. We plan to conduc t a retrospective cohort study comparing incidence of various medical conditions in offspring delivered by ERCS with those aiming for vaginal birth after C/S (VBAC) in Scotland. We will systematically review existing literature on factors affecting preferences for ERCS or VBAC. We will use these findings to inform a questionnaire study of psychological factors affecting preferred mode of delivery using a Theory of Planned Behaviour approach in; Group 1) women in their first pregnancy, who will r eceive the same questionnaire during mid-pregnancy and in the post-natal period, consisting of closed-ended questions; Group 2) Women in their second pregnancy after a previous C/S, who will receive an extended version of the questionnaire received by group 1, including open-ended questions.