- Total grants
- Total funders
- Total recipients
- Earliest award date
- 20 Nov 1998
- Latest award date
- 17 Apr 2020
- Total GBP grants
- Total GBP awarded
- Largest GBP award
- Smallest GBP award
- Total Non-GBP grants
My project examines tensions between cultural practices of domestic hygiene and the organic movement's view of healthy soil (i.e. dirt) as fundamental to human health. I will detect subtle changes in a broad range of representations of domestic food growth, purchase and preparation between 1900 and 1970. I will look at whether vegetables were portrayed as dirty, clean, wholesome or perishable, and at who was seen as responsible for their production, purchase or preparation. Paternalist commercia l organisations will be a major focus as these both encouraged domestic horticulture and presented particular images of products as wholesome and/or hygienic. My research will assess the impact of the take up of mains drainage on cultural attitudes to domestic soil husbandry, and to the organic movement, for whom the return of wastes to the soil was central. My thesis will argue that the construction of a notion of hygienic domesticity in part explains the marginalisation of the organic movement and the decline in domestic vegetable cultivation after 1945. My key goals, alongside my thesis, are to produce two articles, for Medical History and Social History of Medicine, and a number of public engagement activities.
My proposed research will examine the social, cultural and medical history of childbirth in eighteenth-century Wales. My focus will be on the experience of reproduction and childbirth for unmarried mothers and on perinatal mortality, which I believe can be linked to a diverse typology of illegitimacies that carried varying levels of acceptability which influenced perinatal survival rates. My key goals will include investigation of the following: - What forms of courtship, cohabitation and p re-marital conjugal union were acceptable within communities? - Did rates of infant mortality vary for illegitimate births resulting from both acceptable and unacceptable sexual unions? - What childbirth customs and practices existed in eighteenth-century Wales and were they different for unmarried parturient women? - To what extent were there regional variations between in childbirth customs and practices, and in the role of midwives in England and Wales? - Did the largely rural nature of Welsh settlements affect accessibility to the services of a midwife and did this affect mortality rates? - What impact did medical advances in childbirth in the eighteenth century have on Wales?
MA History – Medical Pathway 03 Jul 2016
Life in Glamorgan County Lunatic Asylum 1864–1914. Research Problem: To investigate the interaction between the perspectives, practices and responses of professional staff and incarcerated patients within the Glamorgan asylum, in order both to recover the silent voice and lived experience of patients and to reveal the implementation of professional medical theories within the daily life of the asylum itself. Key Goals: To use the archival records of an individual asylum (Glamorgan County Lunatic Asylum) to ask wider questions and challenge traditional generalised narratives of asylum history. To exploit the archival asylum records in new and dynamic ways in order to recover the ‘patient voice’ and understand patients as active agents in their asylum patient experience. To consider interactions between professional staff and patients in the interpretation of the relationship between the body and the mind within the asylum To investigate how physical ‘symptoms’ were used to demonstrate mental illness, and the use of photography in casebooks to consider the idea that madness had a ’face’
MA History of Medicine 03 Jul 2016
My dissertation, titled Making the Able-Bodied Citizen: Mental Illness, Technology, and Belonging in the Formation of the Swedish Welfare State will examine the classification of disability in relation to the Social Democratic political agenda in wartime Sweden (1940-1945). Focusing on early cases of lobotomy, my project seeks to explain how the able-bodied Social Democratic citizen was constructed in direct opposition to the simultaneous construction of the mentally ill. Drawing on Foucault’s ideas of biopower and governmentality, I will investigate the ways in which people came to be classified as ‘abled’ and ‘disabled’ as a mode of governance. In particular, my research will examine the role of technology and neuroscience in shaping the ideal citizen — considering lobotomy as a literal technology of power used to realise the particular ideas of eugenics informing Swedish policymaking in the 1930s-1940s. My aim is twofold; first, I wish to address the gap in literature between the descriptive historiographical accounts of lobotomy and wider sociological and philosophical theory on biopower -- exploring a new approach to the study of mental illness in the 20th century. Second, this project will serve as a basis for a wider analysis of disability and ideology in my PhD.
A multiphoton imaging facility for in vitro and in vivo studies of CNS function and disease 16 Jun 2016
This proposal seeks funding to establish a multiuser, multiphoton biological imaging facility. This will be largely, but not exclusively, used to support neurobiological research at the University Exeter. Although enjoying a considerable degree of biological imaging expertise the university presently has no multiphoton fluorescence facilities. This bid will not only eliminate this shortfall but will provide a truly cutting edge facility for use by a broad range of Exeter’s bioscientific community. The equipment purchased will also enable us to establish a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging facility available to multiple users- which we believe would be the first multiuser facility for this form of non-linear label free imaging in the UK. The system will be housed in the imaging wing of the University of Exeter’s new Living Systems Institute a 7 storey building due to open in 2016 https://www.exeter.ac.uk/livingsystems/building/about/. This facility will contain 2 independent work stations, both fed by the output of single, widely tuneable, dual beam, laser source (e.g. Spectraphysics Insight DS+ or Chameleon Discovery). These represent the state-of-the-art in terms of power output, pulse length and dispersion correction. Importantly they offer tuning across the widest range of near infrared wavelengths (circa 680-1300 nm).
Alternate messenger RNA processing and mRNA surveillance of key pancreatic transcription factors in monogenic diabetes. 01 Nov 2006
In this study, I wish to investigate whether messenger RNA (mRNA) processing or mRNA surveillance of genes implicated in maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) can impact on pancreatic development, mature function or diabetic phenotype. Mutations in the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1alpha, -1 beta and 4 alpha genes cause MODY. All produce multiple isoforms by alternative mRNA processing. Furthermore, abnormal mRNA processing of HNF1A and HNF1beta has been described to underlie the mutational mechanism of several MODY mutations. I plan to define the temporal and spatial expression profiles of each HNF isomer, determine the roles of each within beta cells using targeted manipulation of the network by RNA interference (RNAi) and assess the effect of manipulation of the extracellular environment by inducing hyperlipidaemic or hyperglycaemic states. Other factors that impact on the constitution of the transcriptome (such as mRNA surveillance) will be examined by study of mutations of HN F1A, HNF1beta or HNF4A transcripts in cell lines from MODY patients. The study of disorders such as diabetes can often be hindered by their multifactorial etiology. Advances made from the study of monogenic diabetes may elucidate the pathogenesis of more complex forms such as type-2 diabetes.
This project explores the role of gender in the perception, spread, and adaptation of biomedicine and biomedical knowledge in twentieth-century Uganda. It aims to develop a better understanding of the role of women in positions of biomedical authority and instruction, and the implications of that role in largely patriarchal societies; to understand the ways that the largely informal biomedical education of women and children by women was received and adapted; and to develop a more complete unde rstanding of the role of women in the promotion of health in Uganda. I pursue these goals by examining three different types of health education, each of which was primarily the province of European women and the Ugandans they trained: maternal and child health; general health and hygiene; and leprosy treatment and prevention. This includes both the formal biomedical education of nurses, midwives, and medical assistants, and informal education about health and hygiene as it was transmitte d through contact at medical centres and homes. I will draw upon interviews with former biomedical professionals and elderly Ugandans living in close proximity to old medical centres, and upon the archives of the colonial government and four missionary societies active in biomedical work and education in Uganda.
The function of bioactive purinergic and lipid signalling in Xenopus kidney development. 16 May 2007
The aim of this project is to establish the roles of purinergic and/or bioactive lipid signalling in pronephric kidney development in the vertebrate model organism Xenopus laevis. We will characterise the distributions of both the ENPP family of ecto-enzymes which generate these active ligands, and the available ligand receptors to identify which are expressed in the pronephric kidney. Preliminary data suggest that 4 ENPPs and 16 receptors are expressed in the pronephros. We will then both miss- express and knock-down the expression of both enzymes and receptors alone and in combination to ask whether the availability of bioactive ligand signalling is important for development of the kidney. We will assess the ability of these compounds to alter development by analysis with both molecular and antibody markers of key stages of pronephros development. Finally we will attempt, by in silico studies, to identify kidney specific enhancer elements which will drive the early pronephric expressi on pattern.
Recurrent miscarriage (RM) has been linked to stem cell deficiency, heightened cellular senescence and impaired decidualization (differentiation) of the endometrium, although the cause of stem cell deficiency is unknown. I hypothesize that low-grade endometritis, defined by the presence of CD138-positive plasma cells in the superficial endometrium, may cause endometrial mesenchymal stem cell (eMSC) depletion. To test this hypothesis, I will establish clonogenic assay from endometrial stromal cells purified from CD138-positive and -negative mid-luteal endometrial biopsies from RM patients. Furthermore, the responsiveness of clonal endometrial MSCs to decidualization signals will be assessed.
'Sexual histories: bodies and desires uncovered' conference to be held at the University of Exeter from 23-25 July 2007. 28 May 2007
Conference: Sexual histories: bodies and desires uncovered, University of Exeter, 23, 24, 25 July 2007: While the study of bodies and sex is a continuing area of substantial research, conferences and symposia on the subject have generally been restricted to particular subjects (such as libertine literature or queer histories) or time periods, or have been encompassed within broader frameworks such as the history of medicine or social and cultural history. This will be the first major, international, interdisciplinary conference in recent years to attempt to bring together related disciplines and related subject areas over a very wide timespan and geographical space.
Natural Philosophy and Medicine in the Manuscripts of Katherine Boyle Jones, Lady Ranelagh (1615-1691). 28 Feb 2007
'Natural Philosophy and Medicine in the Manuscripts of Katherine Boyle Jones, Lady Ranelagh (1615-1691)' Katherine Jones (1615-1691), better known to scholarship as Lady Ranelagh, is only recently becoming established as an important intellectual figure in her own right and not just in relation to her closest brother, the scientist Robert Boyle. This thesis will build upon recent biographical research by Elizabeth Ann Taylor and Sarah Hutton by offering the first substantial study focused primarily on Lady Ranelagh's experimentation with medicine and natural philosophy. This thesis will be divided into two main sections structured around the manuscripts themselves. The first half will focus on extant letters written to and from Lady Ranelagh, and will be divided into two key phases in her life: 1642-1659 and 1660-1691. The second half will explore her three extant manuscript receipt books, each very substantial, compiled over several decades and probably all dating from the latter half of her life.
Using genetics to understand how the maternal intrauterine environment influences fetal growth. 04 Jun 2014
The primary aim of this project is to use analyses of genetic data in the largest and best-characterised studies of mothers and offspring to understand which factors in the maternal intrauterine environment are causally associated with birth weight. I will construct and validate genetic risk scores for maternal traits (including fasting glucose, BMI, vitamin D levels) and test these for association with offspring birth weight in a meta-analysis of 245,000 individuals from the UK Biobank and E arly Growth Genetics (EGG) Consortium (including N=37,000 accurately phenotyped individuals and N=25,220 maternal-fetal pairs to control for confounding by fetal genotype). Strong evidence of association between a genetic risk score for a maternal trait and birth weight will indicate a causal association. Further analyses of associations between genetic risk scores and cord-blood insulin levels, neonatal adiposity and postnatal growth will enable us to begin to characterise the mechanisms linkin g causal maternal factors to fetal growth. The identification of causal associations will provide extremely important information linking modifiable maternal factors with offspring birth weight and thereby informing decisions on pregnancy management for healthy fetal growth.
There is currently a lack of understanding of the role of the sugar transport systems in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The aim of the project is to elucidate the role of these sugar transporters in Mtb by undertaking an interdisciplinary state-of-the-art biochemical, chemical and genetic approach. In this project proteins involved in the uptake of sugars will be recombinantly expressed with the goal of biochemically characterizing the specific substrates that bind and determining the crystal struc ture of these proteins in complex with their physiological ligands, with a view to developing inhibitors of these systems. In parallel a series of mutants of genes involved in sugar uptake will be generated in order to assess the functional role of the transporters and the effects of these mutations determined in vitro by tracking the accumulation of sugars and their incorporation into the cell wall of mycobacteria and in vivo in mice to understand their role in virulence and infection. The mai n goals are: 1) Biochemical characterization and structural determination of the enzymes involved in sugar uptake. 2) Assign physiological functions to genes involve in sugar transport by generating null and conditional mutants in mycobacteria.
Cultures and Environments of Health 30 Oct 2016
Our vision is to create and sustain cultures and environments that enable health and well-being across the life course. Combining expertise from the humanities, social sciences and biomedical sciences, the Centre will provide a unique opportunity to work together to address health challenges facing socially and culturally diverse populations. We aim to: a) determine how health and well-being are shaped by cultural contexts, environmental conditions and social relations; b) extend the evidence base for cross-sectoral policies and interventions that help to create and sustain `healthy publics’. Building on the methodological approaches, expertise and interests of existing research groups, research will explore four core interdependent areas of enquiry that traverse disciplinary boundaries and generate innovative methods for investigating and addressing contemporary health and environmental challenges: 1. Enabling health - investigating changing experiences and meanings of health and developing methods for addressing health inequalities; 2. Health across the life course - studying patterns of emotional well-being and cognitive health in children, families, and older people; 3. Relational approaches to health - assessing the value of social relations and identities in promoting resilience and enhancing health; 4. Environmental and cultural engagement - exploring how cultures and environments can be used to promote health.