- Total grants
- Total funders
- Total recipients
- Earliest award date
- 20 Nov 1998
- Latest award date
- 25 Jan 2019
- Total GBP grants
- Total GBP awarded
- Largest GBP award
- Smallest GBP award
- Total Non-GBP grants
The Devon Partnership NHS Trust, providing mental health and learning disability services for Devon has decided to discard a substantial number of individual patient records, together with at least two different card indices. These materials appear to date mainly 1930s - 1960s and are to be destroyed unless archived. They represent an important resource for researchers and for the engagement of scientific and historical scholarship with the wider public. The Devon Archivist has accepted the need to house these materials on a temporary basis until an effective means of sampling and retention can be found. The rationale for retaining these materials and developing a clear model for sampling what is a collection of some ten thousand patient files can be simply stated. Earlier deposits of health records, in particular those relating to mental health, have provided a foundation for major research initiatives at the Centre, including detailed studies of mental services in south west England before 1939. Relatively few collections of patient records for the post-1918 period have survived, though they complement studies of the nineteenth century which have drawn largely on such materials. The present proposal is for a brief (approximately 3 months) investigation of the medical records to assess their scope and organisation, and to identify an appropriate strategy for future sampling. The proposal envisages funding for one member of staff (a Research Assistant) under the direction of Dr Jo Melling (the applicant), in collaboration with the Devon Archivist, but housed in the Devon Record Office. John Draisey (Devon County Archivist) has agreed to the Research Assistant using office space, telephone facilities and associated resources at the Devon Record Office. Management will be arranged by monthly meetings, with reports prepared by the Research Assistant.
Values-Based Medicine: New Tools and New Applications The background to the conference is: The expanding scope and complexity of issues involving values in all areas of medicine and healthcare, and Widespread recognition of the importance of ethics/law in tacking such issues, but A relative failure to recognise the range of potential new 'tools' for working with values in medicine that are available from a variety of other disciplines. The rationale for the conference is: WMS, as a new Medical School, will be working with partners (national and international) to build a fully values-based as well as evidence-based curriculum (undergraduate through to CPD) over a five year period with rigorous testing of educational impact. This conference will bring together invited delegates (maximum 30) from three key constituencies - researchers/experts, patients/professionals and managers/policy makers - to explore examples of available methods for working with complex values (the tools) and of their potential applications in different fields of medicine. Through a number of specific outputs, the conference will thus help to establish a basis for research and educational initiatives in values-based medicine. Topics to be covered will include the potential contributions to values-based medicine of decision theory, health economics, management/leadership, medical history, literature (including patient/carer narratives), law and clinical ethics, and philosophical value theory.
Genes to patients: new perspectives on personalised medicines Pharmacogenomics applies discoveries arising from genomic studies to improve the efficacy and safety of medicines. A key goal is tailoring selection of medicines for individual patients based on affordable gene testing. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are one of largest preventable problems facing the National Health Services and beyond, contributing up to 7% of hospital admissions in the UK and over 100,000 deaths annually in the USA. ADRs are often due to prescribing errors. However impaired concordance with treatment and thus ineffective control of important medical problems may arise from genetically-determined differences in pathways associated with ADRs and drug effector pathways. Discussion to date considering the role of genetic testing in predicting clinical responsiveness has largely focused on genetic variability in function of pathways directly involved in treatment efficacy. As a result of recent scientific advance in this field, coupled with introduction of clinically validated pharmacogenetic testing and current policy discussion by the Royal Society and other organisations, it is timely to hold a symposium to consider ways in which recent developments in genomics and in proteomics can be applied to effective personalised medicine profiling in clinical practice and to consider issues important in implementing into practice the necessary health technology innovations. Topics to be covered include: Genetic targets: CYP enzymes, drug transporters; receptors, cell signalling - Genetic methods: genotyping; gene mapping; single nucleotide and copy number polymorphisms - Proteomic approaches to drug discovery - Pharmacovigilance platforms: expert systems and cross-cultural issues - Ethical considerations - Health economics of implementing personalised gene testing - Intellectual property and patents - Patients' and users' perspectives - Role of regulatory authorities - Role of biotechnology industry - Role of pharmaceutical industry - Role of Small to Medium-sized Enterprises.
International Symposium, 'Signalling Sound'
The performance of medicine : researching the historical writings on the ritual of tarantism. 13 Jul 2008
The project for which this grant is being sought, is for proposed archival research into specific aspects of medical history relating to the phenomenon of tarantism. The grant will allow for detailed examination of documents and sources contained within two libraries, the Wellcome Trust Library, London, and the Bodleian Library, Oxford, both of which hold significant material relating to the historical study of the medical writings concerning tarantism, which date from the 15th Century through to the present. The key goals of this archival research are that it will contribute toward the writing of a monograph, Ritual, Rapture and Remorse: the dance of the spider in Salento, under contract with Peter Lang, which is a study of the history of tarantism through different disciplinary perspectives, and includes discussion of the extensive amount of documentation within the field of the history of medicine. This will make an important contribution to dissemination of these writings, each of which demonstrates the shifts in approaches to the body, medicine and scientific and philosophical paradigms, most particularly in Renaissance and Early Modern Italy, but also moving through to the developments in psychiatric medicine during the 20th Century.
MA in Medical History. 31 Aug 2007
The mind and its inexorable relationship to the early modern body caught my imagination specifically, and my dissertation was influenced as such. 'Lovesickness' became the core focus of my thesis. Not only did I discover a historiographical lacunae in this field of medical history, but, surprisingly, an incredible amount of source material relating to this disease in both popular and medical tracts of the seventeenth century. Through my research I began to establish the hypothesis that it was this period that witnessed the articulation of the female body as that primarily affected by this disease. Discovering that it was associated with sexual appetite and mental instability, I concluded that lovesickness was grounded deliberately in the fundamental characteristics of the female anatomy in order to posit her gender as sexually and mentally volatile. As such, a diagnosis of 'lovesick' served perfectly to validate a young women's exclusion from the public and intellectual domains, thus supporting the common early modern paradigm of female subjection. Yet while this may have implied the historical fiction of lovesickness, I believe that my analysis also elucidated a genuine disease that may have inspired the invention. Indeed diary entries, newspaper articles, and the predominance of the lovesick maid in popular ballads inferred that real women experienced the tumults of love both physiologically and psychologically. If permitted what I would like to investigate is the disparity in representation between the male and female versions of the disease. Was male lovesickness as much of a cultural phenomenon as the female version, or was it simply a literary relic deriving from the Middle Ages (when the term Amor Heroes implied the masculinity of the disease, as attested by the historian Mary Wack)? Did male lovesickness reside in a different area of the body to that of female lovesickness, and did love enter the body through the same channels? Was the male less, and the female more susceptible to the disease due to their humoral characteristics? Was female lovesickness more innately sexual that male? In medical accounts of authors such as Jacques Ferrand, he seats the disease potentially in the testicles, yet does not link this explicitly to sexual appetite, whilst with the seating of the disease in the womb, he does. Was the male sufferer, therefore, more prone to the melancholic rather than the erotic stage of lovesickness? And as in female accounts of the disease, was the male sufferer always young? And finally, I would like to investigate whether genuine cases of lovesickness inspired the fictive accounts of the male malady, as they did the female. Thus there are an incredible number of avenues to research in this field, if indeed I am granted the opportunity to do so.
Towards a Pre-History of Palliative Care: A Pilot Study Centred on Medical Education and Practice in Birmingham, c.1930 - c.1970 27 Oct 2006
This is a pilot for a broader project on the history of end-of-life medical care before the availability of modern palliative care. It combines analysis of published literature and the use of oral history. The focus is mid-twentieth-century Britain, with a case study of education at Birmingham University Medical School and of the experience of doctors, patients and their families in this region. Although, the emergence of postwar palliative care has attracted attention, there has been no research on what one might call the 'pre-history' of palliative care: how doctors in the period 1930-1960 were trained to cope with the dying patient or how they dealt with this in practice. The rationale for a pilot is threefold. First, given the absence of prior research, there is a need to establish the strengths and weaknesses of a range of research methodologies and sources, particularly the viability of oral history. Secondly, the pilot will result in a number of hypotheses about changes over time that will shape a broader project. Finally, the pilot will trial an interdisciplinary approach involving historians and medical practitioners. In its own right, the research will be of interest to both historians and clinicians.
Although the cultural turn in the history of science and medicine has considerably raised awareness for the contextual importance of material artefacts and practices, medical and scientific knowledge itself is still largely seen as something which is exemplified by cognitive entities: the concepts, theories, and methodologies that scientists hold and use. This project would start from a different perspective by assuming that any form of socially organized knowledge is essentially written knowled ge, and proceeds through the development, deployment and dissemination of writing technologies. While the project focuses on the corpus of manuscripts and publications of a single scientist, Carl Linnaeus (1707 1778), I conceive it as a pilot project that will serve to develop both a terminology and a methodology that is attentive to the materiality of writing, and will have ramifications for how the history of science and medicine is done in general. In particular, it will bring historiography closer again to the defining mark of modern science and medicine: their reliance on forms of inductive reasoning operating on a social and global scale, and the concurrent emergence of ontological concepts of collective entities like species, disease categories, and human types .
Adenosine release in the preoptic forebrain areas that control sleep assessing the role of astrocytes. 06 May 2009
Adenosine is a key endogenous somnogen. I propose that the balance between activity-dependent accumulation of adenosine and its removal by degradative and transport processes sets the basal level of adenosine in the brain throughout the sleep-wake cycle. Glutamate receptor activation is one way that the brain can monitor overall activity levels. Infusion of glutamate receptor agonists into sleep controlling basal forebrain causes adenosine release and enhanced sleep. I shall test the role of ast rocytes in glutamate receptor-dependent release of adenosine in the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) and basal forebrain (BFB). Working in vitro, I shall: 1) determine the dependence of adenosine release on intracellular calcium; 2) test whether there is a causal link between astrocytic calcium signalling and adenosine release; and 3) test whether extracellular adenosine accumulates through prior exocytosis of ATP, the actions of nucleoside transporters, channel mediated mechanisms and the potential involvement of NO-signalling. The outcome of this project will be a determination of the cellular sources and mechanisms of adenosine release in VLPO and BFB. This important advance will set the ground-work for future targeted cell-specific genetic approaches to explore the mechanisms of sleep.
Building on the Centre for the History of Medicine s (CHM) research strengths, increasingly global orientation, interest in interdisciplinary approaches, and eagerness to reflect critically on our discipline and its relationship with medicine and the public, our second Strategic Award will focus on research under the heading Situating Medicine: New Directions in the History of Medicine . This will be shaped by four contexts which will strongly inform our research projects: 1) reframing our rese arch questions to respond to recent changes within medicine; 2) reflecting critically on the disciplinary context of our work; 3) locating our research in the context of globalisation and global governance; and 4) responding to the changing relationship between both medicine and the history of medicine and the public. Informed by these four contexts, our research programme focuses upon four strands of work: Systems of Medicine and Health , interrogating relationships between the classical an d traditional and health practice and everyday life; Health and Governance , considering how health serves as an object and mode of governance; Histories of Biopower , with particular reference to visual strategies and the global traffic in medical garbage; and Post-war Mental Health in Global Context , focusing on children s mental health and diagnosis of societies.
Galen's "Commentaries" on Hippocrates' "Epidemics" :Edition and Translation of the Arabic Version of Books One and Two. 13 Mar 2008
We request funding for two RAs for 36 months each to edit and translate into English the Arabic version of Galen s Commentaries on Hippocrates Epidemics 1-2. The Arabic (c.130,000 words) and English (c.200,000 words) constitute a manageable and coherent portion of Galen s total commentary on Epidemics (which runs to c.350,000 words in Arabic). The edition will be based mainly on one manuscript in Milan (abbr. M) and one in Madrid (E1) (see Details of Research Project). For Book One , where only E1 is known, collation of the largely extant Greek with Hunain s Arabic will assist the edition, yield important results in the field of Graeco-Arabic studies and specifically regarding the development of Arabic medical terminology, and lay the foundation for understanding the Arabic of Book Two where the Greek is lost. For Book Two itself we will use M and E1 to produce a critical text. We are helped by the fact that the copyist of M preserved many interesting variants from man uscripts later destroyed by fire. An introduction will discuss the cultural and intellectual contexts of the commentary in Galen s day and in ninth- and tenth-century Baghdad, and outline the influence of Hunain s translation on medieval Islamic medicine.
The project will pursue three, inter-related areas of research. The first is the role of medicine in the processes, humanisation, reform, and abolition of capital punishment in nineteenth and twentieth-century Britain. This will entail analysis of secondary and primary sources, with particular attention to medical journals, parliamentary reports, and archival papers. The research will result in an article for a journal in the history of medicine. Secondly, we will undertake historical research o n additional medical themes that arise as a result of the 'Immersive Museum Theatre' process. This will involve surveys of secondary literature but also the identification of primary sources that will act as prompts in the creation of theatre. Themes include infanticide, the history of poisoning, the insanity plea and medical evidence in trials, the effects of long-term imprisonment on body and mind, and the uses of the executed body. Our goal is to contribute to the creation of theatre that eng ages with but also challenges the history of medicine. The third area of research is the study and evaluation of the collaboration. Here, our goal is to contribute to the development of a closer relation between research and public engagement within history of medicine.
An investigation of genes in key beta-cell pathways following the type 2 diabetes WTCCC genome wide association study. 31 Oct 2007
We will test the hypothesis that common variation in beta-cell genes predisposes to type 2 diabetes. We will aim to a) identify the most strongly associated SNPs in five new gene regions already identified, and b) investigate in more detail ~730 genes expressed in key beta-cell pathways. We will first genotype a panel of 768 SNPs that increase coverage in selected beta-cell genes in the 2000 cases and 3000 controls already covered by the 500K chip. This will result in information from approxi mately ~31,000 SNPs from across these beta-cell genes. We will then take the 384 SNPs with the best P values (~P80% power to detect odds ratios of 1.15-1.2 at p<1x10-7. We will work with collaborators from the two other largest type 2 diabetes genome scans and UK epidemiological based collections to further increase the confidence of our findings. Finally we will assess the role of newly associated and replicated type 2 diabetes risk variants in pre-diabetic traits including insulin secretion, fasting glucose and birth weight and growth.