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Results

Insights into the molecular mechanisms and dynamics of translocation through SecYEG: an approach using ensemble and single molecule techniques. 22 May 2006

1.    Insights into the molecular mechanisms and dynamics of translocation through SecYEG: an approach using ensemble and single molecule techniques Signal sequence-bearing secretory pre-proteins, and integral membrane proteins are translocated either through the inner membrane in bacteria or the endoplasmic reticulum in eukaryotic cells. The main secretory pathway in Escherichia coli involves the SecYEG translocon, which consists of three integral inner membrane proteins: SecY, which forms the protein channel, SecE that forms a clamp around the complex and SecG. A plethora of studies demonstrated that SecYEG undergoes large and complex sequential intramolecular conformational changes upon binding of partner proteins (e.g. SecA or ribosome) and translocation of secretory proteins. However, the nature of the open and closed states, the oligomeric organisation, the regulation of channel gating and the dynamic behaviour of the reaction remain poorly understood. The emergence of fluorescence techniques at the single molecule level has already improved our understanding of such dynamic processes. In-house developments in single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy instrumentation, combined with the expertise of the Radford group in protein folding and the Baldwin group in membrane proteins, place us in a strong position to unravel the SecYEG dynamics and conformational changes involved in protein translocation through this protein pore. The aims of the project are to: (a) Design structure-based FRET labelled mutants of SecYEG, focusing on key domains of the translocon (e.g. "plug domain", "hinge region", dimerisation interface and the two halves of SecYEG, and (b) characterise the structure/function relationship of these labelled SecYEG mutants using ensemble techniques. Measure intra- and intermolecular distances within and between SecYEG and the model substrate proOmpA during translocation using single molecule FRET (smFRET). Determine the extent to which restricting the movement of key domains by "locking" the protein in specific conformations can influence SecYEG function and derive a detailed mechanistic model for protein translocation.

Amount: £130,015
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Leeds

Cytosolic phospholipase A2a association with the Golgi apparatus regulates vascular function. 11 Jul 2006

We have discovered that cytosolic phospholipase A2a (cPLA2a) is inactivated byassociation with the Golgi apparatus in confluent monolayers of endothelial cells. This inactive pool of enzyme can be released from the Golgi when the monolayer is wounded. It then can bind to target membranes and lead to prostaglandin synthesis. We want to define the biochemical basis of Golgi association. Our evidence (co-immunoprecipitation, co-localisation, siRNA) points strongly to binding of cPLA2 to annexin A1 and other proteins. We shalldefine peptide sequences responsible for cPLA2 binding to the Golgi apparatus.Such peptides will be tested for their ability to promote release of cPLA2 from the Golgi leading to elevation of prostacyclin levels and thus reduction of blood pressure and clotting.

Amount: £156,624
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Leeds

Values-based medicine: new tools and new applications. 30 Aug 2006

Values-Based Medicine: New Tools and New Applications The background to the conference is: The expanding scope and complexity of issues involving values in all areas of medicine and healthcare, and Widespread recognition of the importance of ethics/law in tacking such issues, but A relative failure to recognise the range of potential new 'tools' for working with values in medicine that are available from a variety of other disciplines. The rationale for the conference is: WMS, as a new Medical School, will be working with partners (national and international) to build a fully values-based as well as evidence-based curriculum (undergraduate through to CPD) over a five year period with rigorous testing of educational impact. This conference will bring together invited delegates (maximum 30) from three key constituencies - researchers/experts, patients/professionals and managers/policy makers - to explore examples of available methods for working with complex values (the tools) and of their potential applications in different fields of medicine. Through a number of specific outputs, the conference will thus help to establish a basis for research and educational initiatives in values-based medicine. Topics to be covered will include the potential contributions to values-based medicine of decision theory, health economics, management/leadership, medical history, literature (including patient/carer narratives), law and clinical ethics, and philosophical value theory.

Amount: £5,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Genes to patients: new perspectives on personalised medicines. 19 Jul 2006

Genes to patients: new perspectives on personalised medicines Pharmacogenomics applies discoveries arising from genomic studies to improve the efficacy and safety of medicines. A key goal is tailoring selection of medicines for individual patients based on affordable gene testing. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are one of largest preventable problems facing the National Health Services and beyond, contributing up to 7% of hospital admissions in the UK and over 100,000 deaths annually in the USA. ADRs are often due to prescribing errors. However impaired concordance with treatment and thus ineffective control of important medical problems may arise from genetically-determined differences in pathways associated with ADRs and drug effector pathways. Discussion to date considering the role of genetic testing in predicting clinical responsiveness has largely focused on genetic variability in function of pathways directly involved in treatment efficacy. As a result of recent scientific advance in this field, coupled with introduction of clinically validated pharmacogenetic testing and current policy discussion by the Royal Society and other organisations, it is timely to hold a symposium to consider ways in which recent developments in genomics and in proteomics can be applied to effective personalised medicine profiling in clinical practice and to consider issues important in implementing into practice the necessary health technology innovations. Topics to be covered include: Genetic targets: CYP enzymes, drug transporters; receptors, cell signalling - Genetic methods: genotyping; gene mapping; single nucleotide and copy number polymorphisms - Proteomic approaches to drug discovery - Pharmacovigilance platforms: expert systems and cross-cultural issues - Ethical considerations - Health economics of implementing personalised gene testing - Intellectual property and patents - Patients' and users' perspectives - Role of regulatory authorities - Role of biotechnology industry - Role of pharmaceutical industry - Role of Small to Medium-sized Enterprises.

Amount: £5,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

VALUE IN PEOPLE AWARD. 30 Aug 2006

Not available

Amount: £150,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

VALUE IN PEOPLE AWARD. 30 Aug 2006

Not available

Amount: £200,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Leeds

"Signalling Sound" to be held at the University of Warwick on 7th March 2009 16 Sep 2008

International Symposium, 'Signalling Sound'

Amount: £4,967
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Vacation Scholarships 2008. 27 May 2008

Not available

Amount: £10,080
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Leeds

Value in People Award. 17 Oct 2007

Not available

Amount: £250,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Leeds

Open Access award. 31 Oct 2006

Not available

Amount: £20,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Leeds

RNA structure and its influence on the assembly of single-stranded RNA viruses. 18 Apr 2007

Single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses are one of the largest classes of viruses, including many human and animal pathogens: e.g. HIV, HCV, Norwalk virus1, picornaviruses like poliovirus1, rhinovirus1, equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV)2,3 and Foot-and-Mouth Disease virus4, as well as plant viruses such as Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus (TBSV)5 and Turnip Crinkle Virus (TCV)6-9 and bacteriophages like MS210-14. For many of these viruses novel routes towards anti-viral therapy are urgently required10. However, viral assembly and disassembly, both essential processes in the viral life cycle and therefore attractive potential drug targets, are poorly understood. To further the understanding of viral assembly processes, the following specific aims will be pursued in this project: 1) Investigating the degree of order in ssRNA when encapsidated by viral protein shells, and the influence of N-terminal arms on some coat proteins on this order. 2) Examining the role(s) of secondary structure elements in ssRNA molecules in the initiation of viral capsid assembly.

Amount: £135,946
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Leeds

Characterisation of MINA, an interaction partner of the Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpes Virus ORF57 protein. 18 Apr 2007

Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) ORF57 protein is conserved in all herpesviruses and is an essential regulator of gene expression implicated in many roles during infection. We have recently identified a novel cellular interaction partner of ORF57: MINA (myc-induced nuclear antigen with 53kDa), however the function of MINA is poorly understood. Therefore to understand the role of the ORF57 - MINA interaction, an evaluation of MINA function is required. We hypothesise that MINA: I. Is a protein arginine demethylase. II. Influences the intracellular localisation, protein-protein and RNA-protein interactions. III. Is a regulator of KSHV ORF57 function. To test this hypothesis, this study has 3 distinct objectives: 1) Test whether MINA possesses demethylase activity. 2) Identification of proteins which interact with MINA in uninfected and KSHV-infected cells. 3) Determine whether MINA influences the subcellular localisation, RNA binding or protein-protein interactions of KSHV ORF57 or other identified MINA-interacting proteins.

Amount: £135,946
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Leeds

Towards a Pre-History of Palliative Care: A Pilot Study Centred on Medical Education and Practice in Birmingham, c.1930 - c.1970 27 Oct 2006

This is a pilot for a broader project on the history of end-of-life medical care before the availability of modern palliative care. It combines analysis of published literature and the use of oral history. The focus is mid-twentieth-century Britain, with a case study of education at Birmingham University Medical School and of the experience of doctors, patients and their families in this region. Although, the emergence of postwar palliative care has attracted attention, there has been no research on what one might call the 'pre-history' of palliative care: how doctors in the period 1930-1960 were trained to cope with the dying patient or how they dealt with this in practice. The rationale for a pilot is threefold. First, given the absence of prior research, there is a need to establish the strengths and weaknesses of a range of research methodologies and sources, particularly the viability of oral history. Secondly, the pilot will result in a number of hypotheses about changes over time that will shape a broader project. Finally, the pilot will trial an interdisciplinary approach involving historians and medical practitioners. In its own right, the research will be of interest to both historians and clinicians.

Amount: £15,138
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Genetic dissection of biomineralisation defects and links with retinal degeneration. 16 May 2007

We have ascertained patient cohorts with Amelogenesis Imperfecta and retinal degeneration. This proposal aims to determine whether there is a previously unknown common pathway critical to enamel biomineralisation and retinal function, through genetic investigation of these cohorts. Furthermore, as little is known about the genetics of AI, we will also investigate families with AI alone, to better understand enamel biomineralisation and highlight processes which may link it with retinal function. We therefore propose the following investigations; 1) We have DNAs from five pedigrees segregating recessive Cone-Rod Dystrophy and hypomineralised AI. Two link to chromosome 2q11 and share a common haplotype across 1.2Mb. We will analyse the seven genes within the shared region in linked families. 2) We have identified eleven families with recessive Usher Syndrome and hypomineralised AI. SNP mapping has implicated 14 chromosomal regions consistent with linkage. We will test further markers to identify the gene(s) involved. 3) We will use homozygosity mapping in eight families with recessive hypomineralised AI to identify new genes critical to biomineralisation. 4) For any disease-causing gene identified, we will determine pattern of expression, mutation spectrum and phenotype range, including clinical ophthalmic and dental assessments, laboratory analyses of teeth and bone mineral density assessment.

Amount: £192,191
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Leeds

Cognitive Systems Foresight: Human Attention and Machine Learning. 31 Dec 2006

Human observers move their eyes in order to direct their attention to important aspects of a visual scene. There are models called salience maps; they predict where the eyes will move to when looking at a scene. At present, there models do not deal with video input, nor do they predict how an observer's task will affect where they look in. In other words, there are no models for real-life viewing situations, where an observer has a specific task. We are proposing a new approach to this problem. We have access to video information from cameras used in urban surveillance, and to the operators whose job is to spot abnormal behaviour in such video inputs. We shall obtain (previously unseen) video recordings of events in UK urban streets, and display them in a simulated control room to operators familiar with the town in question. We shall monitor where they look on the bank of video screens, and also when they decide that an event is abnormal and/or requires some form of intervention, e.g. calling the police. We shall use the record of eye fixations to teach a computer system to distinguish between "normal" and "abnormal" events. In this way, we shall be able to learn what is important for humans to do such surveillance by observing their eye fixation behaviour, for a realistic (and difficult) task and set of real-life video sequences. The project is important for four reasons. First, this will be the first attempt to develop a model of human attention/eye movements which will be firmly based on realistic video input and a real task. Second, this will be the first time that a computer system is able to learn from human behaviour in this way. Third, we will learn much about the ability of trained observers to cope with a demanding task as the number of TV monitors increases. Finally, we will develop an automated system which will be able to analyse the input from any urban CCTV camera in order to alert operators to look at that video stream - at present, most CCTV video streams are not observed by anyone since there are too many cameras for the number of human observers. Therefore, an automated alerting system is greatly needed and this project constitutes the best attempt to date to produce one.

Amount: £40,626
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Leeds

Engineering Solutions for an Ageing Population with Musculoskeletal & Cardiovascular Disease. 50 more years after 50. 23 Mar 2009

The   ageing population is increasing in number and life expectancy. The population   expects fifty more years after fifty with high levels of activity and quality   of life. However, the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems age and   degenerate, adversely affecting mobility, ability to work and quality of   life. Advances in engineering and bioscience have created opportunities for   novel devices and regenerative therapies, which utilise innovative   biomaterials or biological scaffolds to guide the patient's own stem cells to   repair degenerative tissues. Advances in patient imaging and diagnostics are   enabling earlier disease diagnosis with opportunities to intervene earlier in   the degenerative process and preserve healthy tissue, and potential to   provide patient specific continuum of care. WELMEC will deliver: - Longer   lasting joint replacements in the hip, knee and spine. - Novel regenerative   biological scaffolds for degenerative joint tissues, dental reconstructions   and cardiovascular surgery. - Advances in cell therapies using the patient's   stem cells. - Advanced medical imaging to facilitate earlier diagnosis and   intervention. - Novel protein biosensors for disease diagnosis and improved   patient targeting. WELMEC will integrate over 200 engineering, physical   science, life science and medical researchers with clinicians and   industrialists to develop and deliver innovative therapies and patient   services for the ageing population.

Amount: £7,456,503
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Leeds

Adenosine release in the preoptic forebrain areas that control sleep assessing the role of astrocytes. 06 May 2009

Adenosine is a key endogenous somnogen. I propose that the balance between activity-dependent accumulation of adenosine and its removal by degradative and transport processes sets the basal level of adenosine in the brain throughout the sleep-wake cycle. Glutamate receptor activation is one way that the brain can monitor overall activity levels. Infusion of glutamate receptor agonists into sleep controlling basal forebrain causes adenosine release and enhanced sleep. I shall test the role of ast rocytes in glutamate receptor-dependent release of adenosine in the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) and basal forebrain (BFB). Working in vitro, I shall: 1) determine the dependence of adenosine release on intracellular calcium; 2) test whether there is a causal link between astrocytic calcium signalling and adenosine release; and 3) test whether extracellular adenosine accumulates through prior exocytosis of ATP, the actions of nucleoside transporters, channel mediated mechanisms and the potential involvement of NO-signalling. The outcome of this project will be a determination of the cellular sources and mechanisms of adenosine release in VLPO and BFB. This important advance will set the ground-work for future targeted cell-specific genetic approaches to explore the mechanisms of sleep.

Amount: £387,727
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Biomedical vacation scholarship. 29 May 2009

Not available

Amount: £7,200
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Leeds

Value in people awards. 21 Oct 2008

Not available

Amount: £200,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

The identification and analysis of genes and proteins underlying recessive familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR). 07 Dec 2006

This project aims to identify and characterise the proteins underlying retinal vasculogenesis and angiogenesis by studying familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR), an inherited blinding disorder of the retinal vascular system. Genetic studies, in which my supervisor and collaborators have already played a major role, have identified three of the genes responsible for FEVR; NDP for X-linked FEVR, FZD4 for dominant FEVR and LRP5 for both dominant and recessive FEVR. However, these genes account for <50% of FEVR cases and in particular LRP5 accounts for <25% of recessive FEVR cases.In this project I intend to identify a new gene(s) responsible for the recessive form of FEVR by analysing a collection of consanguineous recessive FEVR families which don't harbour LRP5 mutations. A new locus will be mapped by identifying regions of autozygosity by microarray whole-genome SNP analysis, followed by traditional microsatellite genotyping and linkage analysis. A candidate gene approach will then be used to identify the mutated gene. Identifying further genes underlying FEVR will increase our understanding of this disease, facilitating its management and treatment. This work will also provide insights into retinal vessel formation, which should contribute to the study of other diseases involving abnormal vascular development.

Amount: £149,340
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Leeds