- Total grants
- Total funders
- Total recipients
- Earliest award date
- 20 Nov 1998
- Latest award date
- 17 Apr 2020
- Total GBP grants
- Total GBP awarded
- Largest GBP award
- Smallest GBP award
- Total Non-GBP grants
Student Elective Prize for Mr Fatou Mama Manneh. 29 Aug 2008
To determine the incidence of hypertension amongst patients that I encounter and to perform ECG on them to determine the incidence of left ventricular hypertrophy in the patient group. A sample of patients from urban and rural settings will be examined.
Student Elective Prize for Miss Alia Ahmed 29 Aug 2008
The predictive utility of the constructs of the Theory of Reasoned Action in predicting intention to engage in safer sex behaviours: implications for sexual health interventions in Grenada.
My research will demonstrate how, and why, veterinarians and other animal practitioners used human psychiatric diseases as models for animal psychopathology. I will show how animals were perceived to suffer psychopathology outside of the laboratory and explore how this was a consequence of changing attitudes to companion animals, of how the animal mind was understood, and an increasing reliance on brain chemistry. I shall analyse this history with a focus on the condition 'separation anxiety' . John Bowlby developed this theory of attachment partly using animal psychological experiments and replaced emotions with instincts. This allowed the later application directly to animals. My thesis will shed new light on how closely intertwined human and animal psychiatry became in the twentieth-century. There are five main goals to this project: - To address a gap in existing scholarship as no comprehensive study of animal psychiatry exists. - To show how the veterinary profession used human psychiatric disease as a model for animal psychopathology. - To demonstrate the links between the mind and behaviour in twentieth-century Britain. - To explore the changing status of companion animals. - To consider the influence of animals on modern psychiatry.
We aim to study the previously unrecognised contribution to haematopoiesis made by the atypical chemokine receptor 1 (ACKR1; also known as Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines or DARC). Our initial data show that DARC is expressed by nucleated erythroid cells and that mice, which lack DARC selectively on erythroid cells, have profoundly altered bone marrow (BM) parameters as compared to wild type mice. Over the next five years, we will discover the mechanisms by which DARC expression on erythroid cells affects: i) steady-state haematopoiesis and the molecular make-up and functional profiles of BM stem-, progenitor- and lineage restricted cells; and ii) diseases that rely for their pathogeneses on haematopoietic cell outputs, notably glomerulonephritis, prostate and breast cancer and anti-microbial host defence. We will correlate our findings in experimental mouse models with molecular and cellular parameters of haematopoiesis in individuals of West African origin who carry the common FyB(ES) polymorphism and thus selectively lack DARC in the erythroid lineage. FyB(ES) is the most predictive ancestry-informative marker of African origin and individuals with FyB(ES) are recognised to have altered incidences and outcomes of several debilitating diseases compared to other DARC polymorphisms. Our research seeks to provide a causative explanation for these findings.
In 1937, Fenwick Beekman argued that most surgical advancements took place in Scotland during the early Enlightenment. Consequently, historians focused heavily on institutional histories of surgery in Glasgow and Edinburgh. More recently, however, Phillip Wilson redirected that focus when he charged historians with neglecting London s surgeons and their practices in his own biographical study of Daniel Turner. Wilson was right in redirecting our attention. After the Restoration, surgeons bec ame a more public and powerful group in London. Their numbers increased; they published more; and they partook in the important debate between learned and new medicine. Put simply, surgeons had become a formidable force by the end of the seventeenth century. My project proposes to investigate the causes behind this change and provide a deeper understanding of how surgeons interacted with each other, their patients and other types of medical practitioners during this period. It does this by c ombining a study of several notable surgeons with other kinds of institutional and social histories. This in turn will demonstrate the ways in which surgeons laid claims to medical expertise and how they used those claims to elevate their social, political and intellectual status after the Restoration.
Understanding T cell receptor (TCR) signalling requirements for thymic gamma/delta cell development; are gamma/delta cells selected through their TCR?. 07 Mar 2011
Gamma/delta T cells make robust non-redundant immune responses against a range of infections and cancers. However, surprisingly little is known about their basic biology. Indeed, although gamma/delta T cells recognise pathogens and tumours through their T cell receptors (TCRs), the individual identities of the TCR targets are still largely unknown. Moreover, how useful gamma/delta TCRs are selected during development in the thymus, and how gamma/delta T cells gain the specialised functional po tential that characterises their unique peripheral immune responses are equally unclear. This proposal seeks to provide important insight into how the characteristics of the gamma/delta TCR regulate the thymic development of gamma/delta T cells. We will test the idea that certain gamma/delta TCRs are positively or negatively selected, and have hypothesised that TCR signal strength at this stage of development fundamentally influences subsequent immune potential with specific reference to the pro duction of interferon-gamma and interleukin-17. Such knowledge will facilitate the search for both the microbial- and tumour-associated targets of the gamma/delta TCR, and should instruct the future refinement of immunotherapeutic strategies in the clinic.
Although the origins of the modern ecological understanding of infectious diseases has been examined by other scholars, for the most part these studies have focussed on specific groups of scientists and/or disciplinary settings. Moreover, preliminary studies of the subject are divided as to the extent to which these ecological perspectives were already present in medical micribiology as opposed to being importation from biology and molecular genetics. There is a need therefore for a comprehensiv e, monograph-length study that surveys the history of ecological perspectives across a range of disciplines from bacteriological epidemiology, to evolutionary biology, parasitology, animal ecology and immunology, and across a broader group of scientific researchers. In particular, this study will build on the preliminary surveys of this field by Anderson, King, Mendelsohn, and Tilley (see bibliography) by tracing the intellectual influences and professional associations between scientists at the forefront of research into epidemic diseases in the interwar and post-war periods. At the same time it will examine the connections between these scientists and key public health institutions, such as the Rockefeller Foundation and the Hooper Foundation, and the effect that post-war debates around the eradication of infectious diseases and environmental politics had on these nascent ecological perspectives
This project has three goals: 1) To construct a limited genealogy of the idea of 'the social' in late-twentieth-century Britain (e.g. in social psychiatry or concepts of social control) showing it to be an historically specific way of thinking. 2) To show how different behaviours under the same umbrella term (Munchausen) illuminate shifts in how this realm is envisioned. 3) To root these changes in historically specific practical arrangements and intellectual assumptions. It has thre e sections: 1) Munchausen syndrome: drawing upon the history of factitious disorders (Kanaan & Wessely, 2010) and self-harm (Millard, forthcoming), I shall show how sociological sick role concepts become central to the pathological social needs at the core of this behaviour. 2) Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSBP) emerges at the interface of peadiatric medicine and social work, drawing upon 1970s concerns about child abuse. The social still includes (parental) aspirations for the sick role, but is transformed by social workers' surveillance and regulation of the family. 3) Munchausen by internet refocuses attention on an increasingly important aspect of the social, the virtual social network of the internet.
Nuclear Factor (NF)-kB is a ubiquitous transcription factor with important roles in inflammation and immunity. My previous research has suggested a role for NF-kB in the resolution of inflammation in vivo (Nat Med 7:1291-7 2001). This project is centred on my discovery of a tissue specific role for NF-kB in inflammation, revealed by Cre/lox mediated gene targeting of IkB kinase (IKK) ß in lung epithelial cells and myeloid cells, presented as preliminary data in the proposal. These experiments uncovered a new function for IKKß in suppression of the 'classically' activated macrophage phenotype. The research proposed will further establish the hypothesis that NF-kB plays a tissue specific role in inflammation by generating new transgenic mouse lines and extending the in vivo analysis to models of both acute and chronic inflammation. Further in vitro studies will characterise the role of IKKß in the regulation of macrophage function and activation and define the molecular mechanism for the suppression of macrophage activation by IKKß. The key goals of this proposal are:Characterise the role of IKKß and NF-kB in the suppression of inflammatory macrophage activation.Determine the specific roles of IKKß in fibroblasts and macrophages in acute inflammation and antigen-driven chronic inflammation.
Study of early sixteenth-century Spanish medical ideas about the effect of the passions and pertubations of the soul on physical and mential health. 27 Oct 2006
The aim of my project is to provide a systematic study of medical approaches to mental illness in Spain between 1498 and 1555. The project will follow a twofold strategy. Firstly, it will examine the notions of insanity and mental infirmity prevailing in key Latin and Spanish medical and moral treatises available in Spain during that period. To date, no historian or historian of medicine has studied the views on madness offered in the Spanish and Latin medical texts circulating in Spain between the late fifteenth century and the late sixteenth century. The few historical studies of madness which refer to sixteenth-century Spain only provide passing references to some people at the royal court who were deemed to be mad, but make no attempt at discussing what constituted 'madness' at the time, and do not mention how these 'mad people' were diagnosed or whether they were treated. My project will seek to fill that clear gap. Secondly, it will examine actual practices of treating the mentally ill by focusing on the case of Juana I (1479-1555), proprietary Queen of Castile, sister of Catherine of Aragon and mother of Emperor Charles V. Historians have often posed the question whether Juana was actually mad, or whether she was simply the victim of political intrigues. In recent years, the question has been reopened from the point of view of political history. The project will seek to make connections which have so far been overlooked by historians. For instance, some of the documents which refer to Juana's 'passion', 'extreme anger' and 'illness' seem to date from the periods of time when she was pregnant: there are references to her mad behaviour during at least three of her six pregnancies. Yet no study of Juana has taken into account her contemporaries' moral and medical views on the possible effects of pregnancy on mental health.
Project title: Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) amongst children in the remote and urban areas of Nepal: Prevalence of, and relationship to co-infection and related disease. Primary protein energy malnutrition is also called protein calorie malnutrition disorder. It is the leading cause of death of children in developing countries. It develops when the consumption of protein (measured in calories) is too low to satisfy the body's nutritional requirements. There may be pure protein deficiency where the diet provides enough energy but lacks the minimum protein, hwoever mostlyt he deficiency is dual. In children Kwashiorker is a form of PEM characterised by protein deficiency. On the other hand, Marasmus is primarily caused by energy deficiency. Mild, moderate and severe classifications of PEM are not precisely defined but patients who lose 10% of their body weight are said to have moderate PEM, with characteristic weakened grip and inability to perform high energy tasks. Losing 20% or more body weight is generally said to be severe PEM. Such persons have slower heart rates, low blood pressure and body temperatures, constipation and skin lesions.