- Total grants
- Total funders
- Total recipients
- Earliest award date
- 20 Nov 1998
- Latest award date
- 17 Apr 2020
- Total GBP grants
- Total GBP awarded
- Largest GBP award
- Smallest GBP award
- Total Non-GBP grants
The impact of systemic bacterial and viral infections on innate immune responses in the brain. 07 Oct 2010
It is well known that systemic inflammation communicates with the brain but most of this research has been carried out using bacterial and viral mimetics. We will use real, transient bacterial and viral infections, in young and old mice, to model common infections of humans. We will study how these infections influence the phenotype of the innate immune cells in the brain, the macrophages and microglia, and also the endothelium. We will characterise the phenotypic changes and establish how long the changes last and whether different infectious agents produce similar or different phenotypes. We propose that the microglia become primed by a systemic infection such that they give an exaggerated response to a secondary stimulus. We will investigate the primed response by stimulating toll-like receptors and immunoregulatory receptors and studying the signalling pathways in microglia isolated from the brains of animals after a systemic infection. We will then confirm that the primed pheno type is present in vivo using inflammatory and neurotoxic stimuli. We propose that the microglia in the aged mouse brain will show an exaggerated priming response and that a secondary challenge will lead to heightened production of potentially neurotoxic molecules when compared to microglia from young animals.
Student Elective Prize for Ms Maya Swaminathan 29 Aug 2008
Collection of normative data regarding densities of myenteric and submucosal enteric nervous in different segments of intestine at different ages and assessment of variation in density in those with enteric innervation abnormalities.
Our knowledge of the genetic basis of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and its intracellular developmental cycle has been severely hampered by the lack of genetic tools. Recently, we developed the means to introduce foreign DNA into C. trachomatis. We propose to build on this work and develop transposon technology (TraDIS) to make knock-out mutants covering the C. trachomatis genome and establish a single-gene knock-out library. Our hypothesis is that C. trachomatis retains a core of essential genes that are required for intracellular growth and development. In this project we aim to: (1) develop a delivery plasmid with an inducible transposon and show proof-of-principle that transposons operate in C. trachomatis (2) make a random, transposon-based gene knock-out library of C. trachomatis, targeted to inessential genes (3) characterise the inactivated genes by sequence analysis and make the library of mutants available. The beauty of having an inducible system is its versatility, and a TraDIS library once constructed can be used to test any number of conditions. TraDIS is a powerful technology that can be used to generate comparative genetic profiles for different conditions/treatments of infected cells during the developmental cycle. Thus, it allows key genetic events to be characterised and identified.
How does Serum Amyloid-P component contribute to the cognitive impairment observed in Alzheimer’s Disease? 27 Apr 2017
The neuropathology of Alzheimers Disease (AD) is associated with the formation of insoluble amyloid deposits containing fibres of amyloid-beta and tau protein. Despite this some patients exhibit high amyloid load yet little loss in cognitive performance. Recent studies have shown particular polymorphs of amyloid beta fibres are correlated with AD phenotypes, raising the possibility that factors that influence the dominant polymorph formed may determine the level of cognitive impairment experienced by the AD patient. Comparison of patients exhibiting similar amyloid load but significantly different cognitive outcomes have revealed that poor cognitive performance is associated with elevated levels of serum amyloid-P component (SAP) within the brain. Given SAPs role in the growth and persistence of amyloid deposits, this research project seeks to determine if SAP can influence the polymorph of amyloid-beta fibre formed, thereby influencing the level of cognitive impairment. To achieve this amyloid-beta fibres will be grown in with and without SAP, and the resulting fibres studies by solid-state magic-angle spinning to assess if the SAP has influenced the structure of the amyloid fibre formed. The data obtained will be compared with published data to assess if the structures formed can be related to particular AD phenotypes.
Hospitals and the Development of Modern Medicine in Iran from the Early Nineteenth Century until the Beginning of the Second World War. 31 Aug 2007
This project proposes to explore the development of modern medicine in Iran from the early nineteenth century until the beginning of the Second World War, testing the hypothesis that social and political evolution throughout this period constituted the driving force in the emergence of modern medicine. The three major factors involved in this evolution were: the military, the Constitutional Revolution (1906-11), and the religious establishment. In the nineteenth century, military modernisation provided the major impetus for medical modernisation. In the twentieth century, however, other socio-political factors became prominent in this process: the Constitutional Revolution went hand in hand with the growth of civil society and of nationalism. At this period, medical modernisation responded to the growing consciousness about bodily and environmental health. Under Reza Shah (1925- 41), nationalism became the ideological force behind centralisation of power and medical modernisation responded both to the centralisation of power and increasing demand for social welfare. It was within the framework of these socio-political developments that waqf (charitable endowments) were increasingly donated for hospital construction and maintenance, while they had mostly been reserved for religious purposes during the nineteenth century.
The self in social phobia: an experimental investigation of the roles of self-perception and self-organisation in maintaining social anxiety. 10 May 2006
Social phobia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder. While recent cognitive models have improved treatment, significant numbers of patients remain symptomatic post-treatment. This research programme examines how distortions in self-view maintain social anxiety by examining the roles of self-esteem andtype of self-organisation in social anxiety. The research uses novel training paradigms that manipulate cognitive biases in order to test the hypotheses. The causal role of reduced positive self-esteem is examined first by temporarily training low socially anxious individuals to have either increasedor reduced positive self-esteem and then testing the effect of these manipulations on their social anxiety. The next step is to train more positiveself-esteem in high socially anxious individuals and then to evaluate whether prolonged training reduces anxiety in social situations. In the next phase of the research, we examine whether self-organisation influences anxiety by examining the relationship between integrated and compartmentalised types of self-organisation (i.e. the ways in which people organise self-knowledge) and
The Waqf and Welfare in Islamic Countries: A Preliminary Investigation into the Development of Modern Medical Establishments Funded by Charitable Endowments in Iran, India and Turkey. 29 Aug 2014
Waqf or endowment in Islamic countries are the most imortant legal institutions that particularly before the modern period comprised an important number of public and private properties. All properties of certain size created waqf, in other words set aside a part of their income for charitable purposes. While this so-called 'pious act' could protect the owner's properties from confiscation, it also could secure salut and peace for the owner's afterlife. During the pre-modern period some of the w aqf endowments were established for public welfare but mainly their purpose was for religious establishments or for funding religious festivals. My research will examine the development of waqf in Islamic countries alongside the reform movements since the end of the nineteenth century. a) to examine the impact of reform movements since the end of the nineteenth century in Iran and other Islamic countries on the development of waqf institution; b) to compare the development of waqf-endowed medica l institutions in terms of their secular or religious purposes and their contribution to the development of medicine and to public welfare in general. The study will involve visits to archives and waqf institutions in at least in three countries, including Iran, India and Turkey.
Health Law and Bioethics at the Frontiers of Innovation Postgraduate Bioethics Conference. 14 Jul 2014
The Postgraduate Bioethics Conference (PGBC) is an annual conference aimed at doctoral researchers in applied ethics broadly conceived. Over the past seven years, often with the support of the Wellcome Trust, PGBC has become established as the leading environment for doctoral candidates whose work involves bioethics to network and present their work. The theme of PGBC 2014 is Health Law and Bioethics at the Frontiers of Innovation and it will take place on 4-5 September at the University of So uthampton. There will be keynote speeches by Professor John Bryant, Professor Bobbie Farsides, Professor John Harris and Professor Jonathan Montgomery. With a focus on training and career development, we will also run two workshops. Bioethics in Practice will be led and organised by Professor Montgomery. Publishing in Bioethics , will involve a panel of editors from leading bioethics journals. Confirmed speakers are Professor Ruth Chadwick (Bioethics), Dr John Coggon (Health Care Analysis), P rofessor David Hughes (Sociology of Health and Illness) and Dr Sara Fovargue (Medical Law Review). We expect over 50 participants, of whom 24 will present a paper. The participants are likely to be mostly UK and Ireland-based doctoral researchers. Please see the website for further details: www.postgradbioethics.com.
Cannibalism in the Early Modern Atlantic. 14 Jul 2014
Cannibalism in the Early Modern Atlantic is an edited book that seeks to bring together fields as diverse as food studies, history, archaeology, and literature, and scholars whose work demands travel to foster the transfer of knowledge. This application seeks funding to help fund a conference enabling such discussions. In taking advantage of recent public interest in the bone findings confirming the existence of cannibalism in Jamestown, Virginia, this project draws attention to questions about food scarcity in the areasAfrica, North and South America, the Caribbean, and coastal Europethat border the Atlantic Ocean. Participants at one 20-person, two-day conference in Southampton will begin to answer the question of what cannibalism tells interdisciplinary scholars about food production and consumption, contact between Europeans and indigenous peoples, naval provisioning issues, and networks in the Atlantic World from the sixteenth thru mid-nineteenth centuries. By placing the history of cannibalism within the larger realm of the Atlantic World, conference participants will be encouraged to produce accessible, jargon-free essays that tell readers about food, history, and the early modern Atlantic.
The Association for Medical Humanities (AMH) aims to progress the international culture of medical/ health humanities through research, scholarship and practice. Medical humanities include: (i) the use of the arts and humanities in medical/ healthcare practice and education, (ii) academic studies of the body in illness and health, and of medicine and healthcare, in historical, cultural and social contexts. Activities include an annual conference and the Association is linked to the BMJ Group jou rnal Medical Humanities. The annual conference provides an international interdisciplinary forum to exchange research, teaching, science and arts based enquiry into the medical humanities. This meeting will be the 11th conference of the AMH and hosted for the first time at Southampton. Previous conferences have been funded by the Wellcome Trust. Each conference takes a different theme and this year's theme is, The Art of Compassion, which aims to facilitate interdisciplinary exploration of me dical humanities within the context of medical education and patient care after the Francis report. Objectives are to share the extent to which medical humanities can generate understanding and maximise its potential to transform medical practice. Diverse speakers, papers and workshops will consider the nature of compassion from historical, philosophical, cultural and global perspectives
A global Chlamydia trachomatis biobank integrated with a comprehensive genome sequence database. 08 May 2013
The aim of this proposal is to establish an international biobank of C. trachomatis isolates at the University of Southampton. The primary objective will be to collect 200 diverse C. trachomatis isolates of known provenance (i.e. isolation date, geographical location and a chain of evidence for passage), which will be identified from the literature. These will be purified if necessary, then typed by sequencing of ompA/other taxonomically useful genes to confirm the identity of the isolate. Phe notypic characterisation will follow. For every isolate to be included in the collection an accompanying whole genome and plasmid sequence will be generated through our collaboration with the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. Once characterised, live isolates and DNA will be available for purchase by members of the research community at a nominal cost. A database will be generated containing all the information on each isolate in the biobank e.g. phenotypic characterisation, genome sequence data, recommended culture conditions; this will be made available on the biobank website. We intend that the website will be a knowledgebase for chlamydia culture to encourage newcomers to field, and to support those experiencing difficulties with the techniques needed for chlamydia culture.