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Results

VALUE IN PEOPLE AWARD. 30 Aug 2006

Not available

Amount: £150,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Medicine and Society in Tenth-Century Baghdad: Between Greek Theory and Islamic Practice. 20 Sep 2006

In the ninth and tenth centuries, Baghdad was not only the political and administrative centre of a vast empire, but also a colossal medical marketplace where practitioners from different backgrounds vied for the attention of potential patients and patrons. It was here that Greek medical texts were translated into Arabic, and that new and sophisticated Islamic hospitals were established. A major-yet entirely overlooked-source for medical theory and practice in tenth-century Baghdad is the Arabic Medical Compendium by al-Kaskarî (fl. 930), a hospital physician who set out in detail his treatment of various illnesses. In each instance, he not only described the disease and summarised previous medical literature on the topic, but also recorded his own case notes, some involving famous patients, as well as treatments developed by his colleagues. I propose to edit, translate, and comment upon this unique and fascinating new source, thereby making it available to the wider scholarly community. On the basis of this work, and by taking additional, hitherto unexplored sources into consideration while reinterpreting others, I shall also address in a monograph the broader question of elite medical care, public health provision, and popular practices during this formative period.

Amount: £1,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Maximising the yield of plant-made immunoglobulins. 14 Jul 2006

The use of transgenic plants for the production of pharmaceuticals is one of the most promising biotechnology methods of recent years, and antibodies are by far the most valuable molecules to be produced in plants. Transgenic plants allow for the production of GMP-compliant antibodies at significantly lower prices than animal culture. Currently however, the overall yield of functional antibody is somewhat low and the achievement of higher yields will further reduce the manufacturing costs and ensure the supply of antibodies is sufficient to meet the high market needs. Dr Lorenzo Frigerio from the University of Warwick has been awarded translational funding to further develop and validate a technology which allows a much higher yield of antibody from plants.

Amount: £110,485
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Values-based medicine: new tools and new applications. 30 Aug 2006

Values-Based Medicine: New Tools and New Applications The background to the conference is: The expanding scope and complexity of issues involving values in all areas of medicine and healthcare, and Widespread recognition of the importance of ethics/law in tacking such issues, but A relative failure to recognise the range of potential new 'tools' for working with values in medicine that are available from a variety of other disciplines. The rationale for the conference is: WMS, as a new Medical School, will be working with partners (national and international) to build a fully values-based as well as evidence-based curriculum (undergraduate through to CPD) over a five year period with rigorous testing of educational impact. This conference will bring together invited delegates (maximum 30) from three key constituencies - researchers/experts, patients/professionals and managers/policy makers - to explore examples of available methods for working with complex values (the tools) and of their potential applications in different fields of medicine. Through a number of specific outputs, the conference will thus help to establish a basis for research and educational initiatives in values-based medicine. Topics to be covered will include the potential contributions to values-based medicine of decision theory, health economics, management/leadership, medical history, literature (including patient/carer narratives), law and clinical ethics, and philosophical value theory.

Amount: £5,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Relationship Versus Authority: Psychiatric Social Work, Therapeutic Communities, and the Sujectivity of the Child, c1930-c1970. 14 Jun 2006

This project will examine residential child care and treatment developed in psychiatric social work and at therapeutic communities between the 1930s and the 1970s. It will reconstruct and historically contextualise the emergence of a new psychiatric model of subjectivity associated with this activity. The inter-war New Psychology considered emotionality key to mental health. But the new model appears to have emerged through a shift, from construing emotionality as essentially rooted in the body, to understanding it as relational in its origins and effects. Psychiatric social work and therapeutic communities appear to be the earliest and most influential areas engaged in this re-conceptualisation of emotionality. This study will examine how activity in these two areas contributed to the emergence, development and influence of the new model of subjectivity. It will develop three inter-related case studies. Each will examine the interaction of practice and theory over time, contextualising this with key social and political influences, and exploring the implications for thinking about the relation between psychiatric care and authority. Finally, the study will consider the challenge from anti-essentialist critiques of psychiatry that became prevalent from around the late 1970s and which contributed to the waning influence of the relational model.

Amount: £118,958
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Use of unique animal models to study reversible effects of hyperglycaemia on the arterial edothelium in vivo. 07 Nov 2005

Despite many noteworthy achievements in management, most individuals with diabetes will still die early largely as a result of arterial diseases and heart attacks. In fact, likelihood of developing coronary disease rises by 300% or more if you develop diabetes and is more likely to prove fatal. Surprisingly, given that high blood glucose levels are the 'hallmark' feature of diabetes, we still do not fully understand how glucose itself might damage the arteries and cause heart attacks. In order to understand heart artery diseases in diabetes we must disentangle the effects of glucose from those of high blood fats, blood pressure etc. Since this is not currently possible in man we will use uniquely appropriate mouse models to answer the following critical questions:a) Does high glucose change the proteins being made in the artery wall or the types of cells that are present and over what time?b) Can these changes go back to normal if we set the glucose level back to normal?c) Do the above changes effect the development of fatty deposits that cause heartattacks? Understanding these processes will greatly increase our understandingof coronary diseases in diabetes and might help identify new targets for future drug development.

Amount: £177,335
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Mechanisms of gating in physiological responses of pH sensitive tandem pore potassium channels. 30 Apr 2006

Acid sensitive potassium channels of the tandem pore family are thought to sense extracellular pH through a His residue at the pore mouth. Our studies on TASK-1 show that the wild type selectivity filter is essential for the response to acidification, which probably involves gating at the selectivity filter in response to protonation. We shall test the generality of this mechanism using site directed mutagenesis and electrophysiological techniques to study both acid-(TASK-3 and TWIK-1) and alkaline-sensitive (TASK-2) channels. We shall use TASK-3 to investigate how microscopic kinetics is altered by acidification, investigating possible state dependence of the effect of protons. Modulation of channels by a variety of factors is important in the physiological function of these channels, many factors actingthrough depletion of phosphatidylinositol bis phosphate (PIP2). We shall study state dependent access of intracellular blocking agents to ask whether channels open and close at the inner pore mouth, as do other, less closely related K+ channels. We shall study mutants of transmembrane domains M2 and M4, including A237T (at the cytoplasmic end of the transmembrane domain M4), which we have shown to increase channel open state probability.

Amount: £193,590
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Coventry and Warwickshire Hospital: An Oral History. 22 Nov 2005

The imminent closure of the Coventry and Warwickshire Hospital in Coventry city centre, and relocation to a purpose-built 'super hospital' on the city's outskirts, marks a significant moment in the history of the NHS. We are currently preparing a programme of public activities to engage the local community in the contemporary and historical issues arising from this event. To this end we have committed funds from our operating budget to employ a Research Assistant at 50% for nine months. His duties will include collecting oral testimony and writing a brief synthetic history for the project website. The purpose of this application (for funds to make the RA full-time and provide equipment) is to add three academic goals to a programme otherwise directed towards public engagement: 1. To extend the quantity, range, and depth of the oral history so that it is of greater academic significance; 2. To develop a more sophisticated contemporary history of the closure based on original archival sources and oral testimony and set within a national context; 3. To communicate the research findings to the academic community in the form of two articles in refereed journals in the history of medicine.

Amount: £23,091
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Genes to patients: new perspectives on personalised medicines. 19 Jul 2006

Genes to patients: new perspectives on personalised medicines Pharmacogenomics applies discoveries arising from genomic studies to improve the efficacy and safety of medicines. A key goal is tailoring selection of medicines for individual patients based on affordable gene testing. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are one of largest preventable problems facing the National Health Services and beyond, contributing up to 7% of hospital admissions in the UK and over 100,000 deaths annually in the USA. ADRs are often due to prescribing errors. However impaired concordance with treatment and thus ineffective control of important medical problems may arise from genetically-determined differences in pathways associated with ADRs and drug effector pathways. Discussion to date considering the role of genetic testing in predicting clinical responsiveness has largely focused on genetic variability in function of pathways directly involved in treatment efficacy. As a result of recent scientific advance in this field, coupled with introduction of clinically validated pharmacogenetic testing and current policy discussion by the Royal Society and other organisations, it is timely to hold a symposium to consider ways in which recent developments in genomics and in proteomics can be applied to effective personalised medicine profiling in clinical practice and to consider issues important in implementing into practice the necessary health technology innovations. Topics to be covered include: Genetic targets: CYP enzymes, drug transporters; receptors, cell signalling - Genetic methods: genotyping; gene mapping; single nucleotide and copy number polymorphisms - Proteomic approaches to drug discovery - Pharmacovigilance platforms: expert systems and cross-cultural issues - Ethical considerations - Health economics of implementing personalised gene testing - Intellectual property and patents - Patients' and users' perspectives - Role of regulatory authorities - Role of biotechnology industry - Role of pharmaceutical industry - Role of Small to Medium-sized Enterprises.

Amount: £5,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

The Coventry and Warwickshire Hospital Project. 23 Jan 2006

The Coventry and Warwickshire Hospital Project The imminent closure of the Coventry and Warwickshire Hospital in Coventry City Centre, and the Hospital's relocation to a new purpose-built 'super hospital', marks a significant moment in the history of the NHS and points to the changing nature of health care in the UK. Yet as well as being a historical event, the closure of the Hospital has a personal dimension: the Hospital has been serving the region at its current site for more than 130 years, and so for many the closure of the Hospital is an emotional event. Through a programme of activity that takes archiving, disseminating, and interacting as its key concerns, the Centre for the History of Medicine at the University of Warwick seeks to stimulate public discussion on a variety of issues, including the history of the Hospital, changes to the NHS, and the future role of hospitals and their place in the community. The project will involve the communities served by the Hospital in writing, interpreting and celebrating the Hospital's history. Planned activities include oral history interviews, salvaging documents and artefacts from the site, and arts events. A dedicated website will provide a virtual space to disseminate information about the Hospital's history as acquired and interpreted through the project's activities, while a public event and visits to local schools and community centres will provide an actual meeting ground for people to come together and discuss the Hospital's place in the community, past and present.

Amount: £26,665
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

MA Social History of Medicine. 30 Aug 2006

MA Social History of Medicine: The course is intended for students who wish to specialise in the Social History of Medicine, and to acquire the skills to carry out research in the field. Drawing in particular on the specialist areas of the course tutors, the MA aims to develop a broad historical knowledge of the subject, to develop methodological skills, to develop new topics for historical investigation, and to carry out primary research in the history of medicine. Core Course 1 : 'Outlines of Medical History' This is a compulsory course, intended to provide students with a broad chronological framework and outline of some of the main themes and developments in the social history of medicine, from the early modern period to the twentieth century. It focuses on the evolution of medical ideas, the structure of medical practice, medical institutions, and the scientific, demographic, cultural, and social context of medical intervention. Core Course 2 : 'Texts and Contexts in the History of Medicine' The secondary compulsory Core Course, is intended to give students a grounding in the wide range of sources available to the social historian of medicine, including practice records, local archives, diaries, public health material, health propaganda, patients' narratives, and visual sources: architecture, paintings, photography and film. Intensive use is made of primary source material and a 'hands on' approach, while contextualising the material within broader historical debates. Visits are made to the Modern Records Centre, Warwick Country Record Office and the Wellcome Trust Library.

Amount: £63,774
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Spatio-temporal dynamics of livestock infections: generic concepts of prediction and control. 09 Feb 2006

This project has three main aims:1) To create mathematical models of micro-parasitic livestock infections which span a range of epidemiological disease profiles: from predominantly local transmission to situations where transmission is mainly through the movement of infected animals; from rapidly transmitted infections where the farm can be treated as the unit of infection to more slowly transmitted infections where the within-farm dynamics are more important.2) To determine appropriate and effective control measures for a range of disease scenarios; to develop methods to optimise control measures when logistical constraints or trade-offs exist; to determine if trigger-points exist which acts as cues for switching to a particular control strategy.3) To develop specific models for three livestock diseases that span the range of potential disease behaviours: E. coli O157 - spread relatively slowly primarily by animal movements and from environmental sources; foot-and-mouth disease - rapidly spread by both local transmission and the movement of animals and personnel; avian influenza - moderately quick spread primarily by local transmission.Throughout, emphasis will be placed both on developing cutting-edge modelling technology and its practical application as a tool for advising policy makers.

Amount: £166,432
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Value in People award. 18 Jul 2007

Not available

Amount: £150,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

'Kill or Cure: Water and Health in the Nineteenth Century' workshop to be held in Venice, Italy from 29th to 30th March 2007. 19 Feb 2007

Conference: Kill or Cure: Water and Health in the Nineteenth Century, Venice, Italy (Palazzo Pesaro Papafava), 29-30 March 2007 The nineteenth-century public health movement has been well documented; so too has the use of spas and interest in hydropathic approaches after the 1840s. However, until now there has been no attempt to unite the two strands of scholarship to interrogate the multiple ways in which water was represented and conceived as both a potential hazard and an important health resource in the nineteenth century. The workshop participants will question how ideas on pure water were constructed according to nineteenth-century views and protocols, linking with new research on water and environment. It will also examine the domestic uses of water in relationship to hygienic and curing practices. The workshop participants will question how ideas on pure water were constructed according to nineteenth-century views and protocols, linking with new research on water and environment. It will also examine the domestic uses of water in relationship to hygienic and curing practices. The workshop will explore the medium of water as a source of disease and health in an international context, comparing East with West, with a specific focus on Western Europe and Asia. The theme of water has important connections with current debates on the relationship of water and its supply with health and wellbeing, particularly in developing countries. Venice, forming a passageway between East and West, has powerful associations with water, the basis of its wealth through trade and leisure, and more sinister associations with water and disease. It provides a perfect context for this workshop, and will be a convenient location for many of the participants. We will benefit too from the availability of the Palazzo Pesaro-Papafava to Warwick academics and from the funding opportunities offered by the University of Warwick. We anticipate that the workshop will result in an enduring and productive international network of scholars. Topics to be covered include: Concerns about the availability and purity of water supplies The construction of the relationship between water and disease Responses to water-borne epidemics Water as a focus of reform Water consumption and the politicization of water supply and usage The impact of improved domestic water supplies Water and healing practices and cultures The workshop will link closely to the our Wellcome Trust funded Project Grant, 'Healing Cultures, Medicine and the Therapeutic Uses of Water in the English Midlands, 1840-1948', and the organization of what we envisage as a high-impact workshop will strengthen our profile in this area of research, as well as highlighting the potential of a scholarly network based around the theme of water.

Amount: £2,400
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Natural Philosophy and Medicine in the Manuscripts of Katherine Boyle Jones, Lady Ranelagh (1615-1691). 28 Feb 2007

'Natural Philosophy and Medicine in the Manuscripts of Katherine Boyle Jones, Lady Ranelagh (1615-1691)' Katherine Jones (1615-1691), better known to scholarship as Lady Ranelagh, is only recently becoming established as an important intellectual figure in her own right and not just in relation to her closest brother, the scientist Robert Boyle. This thesis will build upon recent biographical research by Elizabeth Ann Taylor and Sarah Hutton by offering the first substantial study focused primarily on Lady Ranelagh's experimentation with medicine and natural philosophy. This thesis will be divided into two main sections structured around the manuscripts themselves. The first half will focus on extant letters written to and from Lady Ranelagh, and will be divided into two key phases in her life: 1642-1659 and 1660-1691. The second half will explore her three extant manuscript receipt books, each very substantial, compiled over several decades and probably all dating from the latter half of her life.

Amount: £1,500
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

The function of bioactive purinergic and lipid signalling in Xenopus kidney development. 16 May 2007

The aim of this project is to establish the roles of purinergic and/or bioactive lipid signalling in pronephric kidney development in the vertebrate model organism Xenopus laevis. We will characterise the distributions of both the ENPP family of ecto-enzymes which generate these active ligands, and the available ligand receptors to identify which are expressed in the pronephric kidney. Preliminary data suggest that 4 ENPPs and 16 receptors are expressed in the pronephros. We will then both miss- express and knock-down the expression of both enzymes and receptors alone and in combination to ask whether the availability of bioactive ligand signalling is important for development of the kidney. We will assess the ability of these compounds to alter development by analysis with both molecular and antibody markers of key stages of pronephros development. Finally we will attempt, by in silico studies, to identify kidney specific enhancer elements which will drive the early pronephric expressi on pattern.

Amount: £262,165
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Packaging of the Rotavirus Genome. 24 Apr 2007

This project focuses on the genome segment selection/packaging process in rotaviruses. Building on the recent report from Taniguchi and colleagues of the first gene rescue in rotaviruses (20) it will seek to develop this technology in the context of mapping the segment selection/packaging signals in rotavirus RNAs. A hybrid cDNA of viral genome segment 5 carrying an inserted bacterial xanthine-guanine phosphribosyl transferase gene (XGPRT) expression cassette will be constructed. The hybrid cDN A has been manipulated by the addition of a T7 promoter and a hepatitis virus ribozyme at its 5 and 3 termini respectively such that when transcribed by T7 RNA polymerase a transcript with authentic viral gene termini will be generated. XGPRT expression will be used to provide a positive selection screen for rescue of the hybrid into infectious virus. The hybrid will used to develop first a helper dependent gene rescue protocol in which hybrid gene 5 transcripts will be rescued into infectio us virus by a helper rotavirus infection of transfected cells. Building on the helper dependent system a wholly plasmid based gene rescue protocol will be developed with which to probe for segment selection/packing signals in the other viral genes

Amount: £125,070
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Towards a Pre-History of Palliative Care: A Pilot Study Centred on Medical Education and Practice in Birmingham, c.1930 - c.1970 27 Oct 2006

This is a pilot for a broader project on the history of end-of-life medical care before the availability of modern palliative care. It combines analysis of published literature and the use of oral history. The focus is mid-twentieth-century Britain, with a case study of education at Birmingham University Medical School and of the experience of doctors, patients and their families in this region. Although, the emergence of postwar palliative care has attracted attention, there has been no research on what one might call the 'pre-history' of palliative care: how doctors in the period 1930-1960 were trained to cope with the dying patient or how they dealt with this in practice. The rationale for a pilot is threefold. First, given the absence of prior research, there is a need to establish the strengths and weaknesses of a range of research methodologies and sources, particularly the viability of oral history. Secondly, the pilot will result in a number of hypotheses about changes over time that will shape a broader project. Finally, the pilot will trial an interdisciplinary approach involving historians and medical practitioners. In its own right, the research will be of interest to both historians and clinicians.

Amount: £15,138
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Pulling the Plug?: An Oral History of Spa Practices and Experiences at the Royal Pump Rooms, Leamington Spa, in the Late Twentieth Century. 14 Jun 2007

This six-month project will investigate the experience and meanings of spa treatment in Britain in the second half of the twentieth century, a period of decline in the provision of these services by the National Health Service (NHS), but not apparently of diminishing public support. The project will focus on the Royal Pump Rooms, Leamington Spa, with research based primarily on oral history interviews with patients and health-care providers employed at the Pump Rooms. The interviews will be co mplemented by research drawing on press cuttings, local authority and health authority records, and the large collection of photographs and objects held at the Leamington Spa Art Gallery & Museum (LSAGM). The project will: Develop an oral history resource of approximately 80 hours of recorded interviews, full transcripts and summaries. This archive will be deposited at LSAGM, and offered to the Wellcome Trust Library and the National Sound Archive. Communicate findings to the academic a nd museum community via articles in a refereed history of medicine journal (e.g. Medical History) and in a museum journal (e.g. Journal of Social History Curators Group), and on the LSAGM (Medicate) and Centre for the History of Medicine (CHM) websites.

Amount: £26,941
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Mechanisms of target cell entry and applications of protein toxinx. 01 Nov 2006

Ricin and Shiga(-like) toxin catalyse a depurination of eukaryotic ribosomes to promote cell death. To target ribosomes, these proteins undergo retrograde transport to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) before retrotranslocating its membrane. The current model suggests they accomplish this by exploiting, but then uncoupling from, the ER-associated degradation pathway - a quality control system that detects and delivers aberrant ER proteins to the cytosol for proteasomal degradation. However, this model is by no means proven and molecular details of all downstream steps of the cellular intoxication process for these toxins remain scant. As examples of non classical ERAD and ribosome-tethered chaperones begin to emerge, one goal of this application is to characterise toxin-ER membrane interactions, and toxin retro-translocation and fate in the cytosol. A second goal is to optimise vaccination protocols based on using inactive ricin A chain fused with antigenic peptides/proteins in an approach involving delivery into dendritic cells and intersection of the MHC class I presentation pathway. Different dendritic cell maturation protocols will also be compared to ensure optimal priming of antigen-specific T and B cell responses. This will provide a general platform for the design of effective T cell therapy against cancer and infectious diseases and may be appropriate for the ongoing development of an effective anti-ricin vaccine.

Amount: £752,726
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick