- Total grants
- Total funders
- Total recipients
- Earliest award date
- 07 Nov 2005
- Latest award date
- 30 Sep 2018
- Total GBP grants
- Total GBP awarded
- Largest GBP award
- Smallest GBP award
- Total Non-GBP grants
For the past several decades, global health researchers and policy-makers have raised the alarm about the growing threat that fake pharmaceuticals pose to global health. Often these concerns are framed in terms of particular places and people, for example, fake drugs from India imperil Africans’ health. We subjected these high-profile and oft-repeated claims to scrutiny. This exercise produced some unexpected findings. Across scientific, policy and popular literature, we found substantial misalignments between (1) the strength of claims about fakes alongside (2) the relative weakness of these claims’ evidence. Scientific literature in particular raised questions about apparent certainties, such as: What, exactly, are fake drugs? Are fake drugs necessarily dangerous? Where do they come from? When the global supply of life-saving medicines is beset by worries about safety, governments and citizens face difficult decisions about how to allocate scarce resources. By asking questions about these worries, we hypothesize that the problem of fake drugs is not solely a pharmacological problem; it is also a social problem. Two questions guide our project’s historical and ethnographic research What accounts for the rise of fake-talk—the wide-spread and urgently-reiterated set of concerns about the dangers that fake drugs present? What are the effects of fake-talk?
Streamlining Galen: Medical Summaries and the Transmission of Medicine in Medieval Islam 30 Jul 2018
We propose to study medical teaching and practice and the changing face of Galenic medicine in Islam through the medium of a prolific but largely unstudied genre of writings, Arabic summaries of Galen. A fundamental re-evaluation of these sources will show how they served as primary learning tools for medical students and doctors, a means of demonstrating medical credentials, and as instruments for the reconfiguration of the ancient medical heritage. In addition to a comprehensive survey of Arabic Galenic summaries, we will compile and digitise a select corpus of such texts, and analyse and compare them with the Galen treatises in Arabic translation that formed the basis of the summaries, using digital tools and techniques of close reading. The proposed outcomes include (1) a study of the history, nature and purposes of summaries in Arabic medical literature; (2) monograph studies, editions and translations of a number of these works; (3) articles on individual authors of summaries and their working methods; (4) the proceedings of a conference on the role of auxiliary texts in the evolution of Galenic medicine in antiquity and the Middle Ages; and (5) a publicly available digital corpus of summaries and related texts.
'The Royal Albert’: Childhood Idiocy and the Institutionalisation of Children’s Care in Victorian and Edwardian Britain. 08 May 2018
This PhD will investigate the social and medical history of children’s care in Victorian and Edwardian Britain, using the Royal Albert Institution as a case study. By the turn of the nineteenth-century, this establishment was one of the largest institutions in the UK devoted to the care and treatment of children deemed ‘idiots’ and ‘imbeciles’. The PhD intends to document the evolution of the Royal Albert from its inception in 1864 to 1913, providing a broad chronological overview of its development and contribution to wider debates about childhood and disability in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Historical studies of childhood have undergone something of a renaissance in the late twentieth-century, forging new understandings of the ways in which childhood as a social condition and temporal state were shaped in different contexts. The PhD intends to extend these exciting developments and provide an innovative contribution to contemporary advancements in disability studies which seek to 'dislocate' conventional views of the disabled and the marginalised. It will develop our understanding of how children with disabilities and mental disorders intersected with emerging healthcare systems, and refine our view of the interplay between the state, families and medical professionals in managing their care.
Safeguarding people with mental heath issues or learning disabilities during contact with the police 06 Nov 2017
People with mental health issues account for approximately 20-40% of police time and a substantial proportion of deaths in police custody. However, police forces are still struggling to identify interventions to better safeguard the welfare and lives of the mentally vulnerable. Using four Wellcome Library archives as a starting point, this project will develop a much needed evidence-base for understanding (i) how these health issues have come to dominate police time, (ii) what barriers exist for better police-health partnerships and, (iii) how to overcome them. The literature is patchy and highly dispersed, with even less research on safeguarding people with the closely related issue of learning disabilities. This project will take place at a time when national government, police forces and local health trusts are keen to develop more integrated services but face considerable barriers to making them successful. Therefore, this project is timely and will enhance our understanding about why progress is frustrating slow, improve decision-making, and identify conceptual black-holes for future inquiry. Recommendations will be developed and some will be tested for a subsequent, major grant application to the Wellcome Trust in collaboration with at least two police forces and their health trusts.
MA in the History of Medicine 11 Jul 2018
The MA in the History of Medicine aims to introduce students to the advanced study of the history of medicine, and to equip them with the conceptual and practical skills to carry out independent historical research in this field. The students on the MA are encouraged to engage with a range of concepts, and to place developments within medical theory and practice in a broad social and cultural framework. The Term One core module ‘Themes and Methods in Medical History’ is designed to introduce students to some of the main historiographical approaches and debates within the history of medicine from the early modern period to the twenty-first century. The Term Two core module, 'Matters of Life and Death', addresses three sets of topics in the history of medicine (broadly construed) selected by its students from a menu of possible options. Possible topics range across the expertise of teaching and research staff in the Centre for the History of Medicine, and of our Associates in the wider University context. Students actively engage with a wide range of sources available to the historian of medicine (e.g. medical texts, practice records, diaries, case records, public health reports and health propaganda, and visual sources).
No synopsis provided
Connexin 32 evolution to a CO2 sensor 31 May 2018
Connexin26 (Cx26) is the CO2 chemosensor from reptiles to humans. The CO2 sensitivity of Cx26 arose early in the evolution of air breathing and is present in the ancient lungfish ancestor of all tetrapods. However, Cx26 of modern ray-finned fish has lost the CO2-binding motif. In mammals, Cx32 has a CO2 binding motif almost identical to that of Cx26 and is also sensitive to CO2. Strikingly the CO2 binding motif is retained in Cx32 of ray-finned fish. I would like to test the hypothesis that Cx26 and Cx32 have evolved from a common ancestor. An important step in testing this hypothesis is to see whether Cx32 of different ray-finned fish species is sensitive to CO2 and compare the protein sequence similarity. I will transfect fish Cx32 cDNA into HeLa cells and use a simple dye loading assay to test their CO2-sensitivity. I will also quantify the CO2 sensitivity of human Cx32 to give a direct comparison between fish and human Cx32. I will conduct a bioinformatic analysis of Cx32, paying particular attention to the CO2-binding motif, from several fish, amphibian, reptilian and mammalian species. My work will shed new light on the origins of CO2 binding in the connexin family.
Our project investigates health risks, medical interventions and health care in English and Irish prisons between 1850 and 2000. The two systems were interconnected in terms of administrative development and the high number of Irish prisoners in English prisons, yet varied in terms of the size of their respective populations, the impact of religious bodies on reform and in the role of political prisoners in shaping health. The largest research strand explores the high incidence of mental illness amongst prisoners and the impact of the prison system on the mental health of inmates, adults and juveniles, key issues which have preoccupied prison medical services and reformers from the early nineteenth century to the current day. Further strands examine the management of medical care and disease; responses to HIV/AIDS in prisons; the impact of political prisoners on medical regimes and prisoners' rights; the health of women prisoners; and the campaigns of lay and religious reformers in see king to improve facilities. The project interrogates inherent tensions as medical staff grappled to maintain healthy and hygienic practices, while devising regimens to discipline and rehabilitate prisoners in the context of poor conditions, official disinterest and intermittent overcrowding. Our case studies also consider the categories of gender, sexuality, class, age, religion, race, migration and ethnicity and how these influenced medical interventions. Alongside the production of scholarly o utputs, and a wide range of public engagement activities, our project will address current policy debates on prison systems, medical ethics and the management of prisoners' health.
Defining pathways of respiratory virus transmission leading to improved intervention strategies. 03 Dec 2013
Sick Note Britain investigates the concept of "the sick note" and its usage in Britain since the Second World War. The sick note, representing a form of medical certification, sits at the meeting point of medicine, industry, the British welfare state and lay conceptions of health. Yet it has not yet received serious historical attention, despite a wealth of literature on the profound economic, political and cultural shifts in the post-war period. This project investigates what attitudes towards sick notes tell us about the concepts of sickness and capacity for work. To do this, it will study: how the medical profession was used as the arbiter of sickness and how this role changed; whether and how attitudes toward the sick note differed between employees and employers; and the role of the state in the management, use and regulation of sick notes. It will focus primarily on employment, industrial relations and state health-related benefits. The project aims to produce peer-reviewed research outputs (including a monograph) and to engage policy informers about the historical and cultural context of sick notes in the United Kingdom. It will also act as the basis for future research into medical certification.
My project examines tensions between cultural practices of domestic hygiene and the organic movement's view of healthy soil (i.e. dirt) as fundamental to human health. I will detect subtle changes in a broad range of representations of domestic food growth, purchase and preparation between 1900 and 1970. I will look at whether vegetables were portrayed as dirty, clean, wholesome or perishable, and at who was seen as responsible for their production, purchase or preparation. Paternalist commercia l organisations will be a major focus as these both encouraged domestic horticulture and presented particular images of products as wholesome and/or hygienic. My research will assess the impact of the take up of mains drainage on cultural attitudes to domestic soil husbandry, and to the organic movement, for whom the return of wastes to the soil was central. My thesis will argue that the construction of a notion of hygienic domesticity in part explains the marginalisation of the organic movement and the decline in domestic vegetable cultivation after 1945. My key goals, alongside my thesis, are to produce two articles, for Medical History and Social History of Medicine, and a number of public engagement activities.
The ability to access and disseminate information through digital communication networks (e.g. internet, mobile phones) is changing societal activities including national politics and accountability. Using digital communication, lay-controlled networks with particular health interests are becoming powerful political lobby groups. We seek to describe these networks, the impact they have and how this varies. Initial scoping searches of published literature will establish the extent to which they a re documented and seek evidence of their prevalence and characteristics. We will then undertake case studies of 3-5 networks, exploring their structure, function, participants, impact, how they came into being and sustain themselves, and what changed as they matured. Case studies will draw on literature, on line material and key-informant interviews. This exploratory study builds on the research teams theoretical work and is complimented by secured funding for research team visits. Lay-controlle d networked communication is likely to increase as the public seek to use it to improve their situation. Those responsible for health care provision will need to understand the potential impact and how to respond to enhance benefit and limit harm, whilst respecting individual autonomy. Impact may be greater in countries where accountability of health providers and associated governance is weak.
The funds requested will be used to support qualitative social sciences research into the ethical and legal principles that are emerging around research with chimeric organisms in the United States. These activities will feed into a larger comparative project on how nation-specific legal-constitutional regimes may be implicated in redefining the normative standards of the category human. Specific research activities will include interviewing members of Embryonic Stem Cell Research Oversight Comm ittees at Harvard University and the University of Wisconsin-Madison, as well as visits to stem cell laboratories at both these universities. During this time I will be based at Harvard University in the Program on Science, Technology and Society at the John F. Kennedy School of Government. In order to undertake the empirical research it will be necessary to spend approximately 4 months in the United States where I will a) gather collect of documents (e.g. policy and ethical guidelines, repo rts from advisory bodies, media coverage of scientific practice, biomedical journal articles); b) conduct semi-structured interviews with scientists and regulators; c) visit laboratories and institutional settings to observe the conduct and deliberation of those involved in scientific and regulatory practice.
Application for a Wellcome Trust / Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology Fellowship in Society & Ethics. 28 Apr 2014
Medical Prognosis in Late Antiquity. 05 Dec 2012
This project will offer the first comprehensive study of ancient medical prognostic tools and predictive strategies in late antiquity. Taking Galen's oeuvre as a pivotal moment in the development of such tools and strategies, it will focus on post-Galenic medicine with the aim of reviewing and explaining the deep transformations, as well as the threads of continuity, that characterize the field of medical prognosis between Galen's legacy and the end of antiquity. Specifically this project will f ocus on this transitional period for three crucial areas of ancient medical prognostication, namely uroscopy, sphygmology and, to a lesser extent, astrology. Analysis of these methods will allow a realistic assessment of Galen's input in this crucial area of ancient medicine. The project will examine the overused notion of Galenism (Temkin 1973) in the context of late-antique prognosis in order to propose hypotheses about (1) the transformation of prognostic strategies, (2) the paths of knowledg e that allowed their transfer to the West in late antiquity, and (3) the exact role of Galen in late antique medical theory and practise. To this end, a number of works ascribed to Galen, of disputed date and authorship, will form the textual basis of the enquiry.
Conformational, dynamic and ligand-binding properties of protein disulphide-isomerase: studies with site-specific NMR and fluorescent probes. 14 Oct 2010
We will use state-of-the-art spectroscopic methods to probe the structure and dynamics of full-length PDI (abb xa c domains) and various domain combinations. We will determine relative domain orientations within the full-length protein, measuring residual dipolar couplings of PDI biosynthetically labelled with 15N-Leu. The Leu residues will be assigned using our existing full backbone assignments of domains and domain pairs and will also act as probes within each domain to reveal dynamics by NOE , relaxation and exchange studies. We will use FRET to measure distances between sites and single-molecule FRET to determine the distribution of distances and resolve multiple conformers; we will place FRET pairs on the redox-active sites in a and a domains of PDI, subsequently introducing Cys residues at other defined sites, to obtain several distances and so triangulate conformations and understand domain motions. We will repeat these studies in presence of unfolded and part-folded protein li gands to determine effects on PDI conformation and dynamics, and also study mutants which constrain the relative orientations of b and x regions. We will provide novel structural, kinetic and thermodynamic information on the interaction between PDI and ligands by introducing site-specific fluorescence and NMR probes into peptide and protein ligands.
Blood and tissue samples as ‘human subjects’ 10 Mar 2016
This project examines transformations in the definition of the human research subject in biomedical research. Historically, ethical concerns arose around the reasonably well-defined category of the human subject, with ensuing allowances to address animal welfare and human embryos. However, such divisions are now undergoing substantial revisions. On September 8 2015, the US announced an overhaul for research regulations – the expansion of the definition of ‘human subject’ to include biospecimens (i.e., blood and tissue samples). Such changes point towards the increasing importance of biospecimens in health research, along with their politicization. In addition, advisory bodies have issued guidance on the ‘humanization’ of other life forms brought about by the increasing use of human biological material in other animals (e.g. human ‘admixed embryos’ in the UK & the US moratorium announced on 23 September 2015 for animals containing human cells in early development). This project investigates such new and changing understandings of the human subject in biomedical research through a qualitative based pilot study in the US and Germany. In addition, it will lay the groundwork for a large future grant application by establishing a collaborative and international research network to address these developments from local and global perspectives.
Investigation of an essential enzyme involved in sugar processing in Mycobacterium tuberculosis 11 Feb 2016
There is currently a lack of understanding of the role of the sugar transport systems in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The aim of the project is to elucidate the role of these sugar transporters in Mtb by undertaking an interdisciplinary state-of-the-art biochemical, chemical and genetic approach. In this project proteins involved in the uptake of sugars will be recombinantly expressed with the goal of biochemically characterizing the specific substrates that bind and determining the crystal struc ture of these proteins in complex with their physiological ligands, with a view to developing inhibitors of these systems. In parallel a series of mutants of genes involved in sugar uptake will be generated in order to assess the functional role of the transporters and the effects of these mutations determined in vitro by tracking the accumulation of sugars and their incorporation into the cell wall of mycobacteria and in vivo in mice to understand their role in virulence and infection. The mai n goals are: 1) Biochemical characterization and structural determination of the enzymes involved in sugar uptake. 2) Assign physiological functions to genes involve in sugar transport by generating null and conditional mutants in mycobacteria.
Deep evolutionary history of bacterial pathogens 05 Jul 2016
How old are bacterial pathogens, and what evolutionary steps have they undergone? Comparative genomics can accurately resolve recent demography and genealogy of bacterial pathogens. Some historical pathogenic lineages have also been reconstructed by taking advantage of ancient genomes (aDNA), including the causes of plague, cholera, tuberculosis and leprosy. Although ground-breaking, these lineages were relatively easy to analyse using conventional tools due to limited genetic diversity and little recombination, and prior studies on existing genomic diversity. Generating a historical framework for most bacterial pathogens that currently threaten human health, and our food supply, is much more challenging because historical records do not provide unambiguous bacterial identification. Furthermore, the long-term population structure and genealogies of most bacteria are not well defined due to high levels of genetic diversity and frequent recombination, including Salmonella enterica. We will reconstruct the long-term evolutionary history of bacterial pathogens using both metagenomic data from ancient samples and population genetic data from present-day bacteria. We will use the latest developments in aDNA sequencing, develop new bioinformatic approaches for metagenomic analyses, and create a big-data overview of modern genetic diversity. This strategy will be implemented for S. enterica, and then applied to other pathogens.