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Recipients:
University of Oxford
Amounts:
£1,000 - £5,000

Results

Slippery slopes in the history of in vitro fertilisation and therapeutic cloning: the influence of ethical argument on the development of law and policy. 26 Apr 2006

IVF and embryo research have been the subject of controversy for more than thirty years and have been attacked on the basis that allowing them is the beginning of a 'slippery slope' towards eugenics, state control of reproduction and reproductive cloning. Debates about these technologies have been characterised by fears of the 'uncontrollability' of science and the consequences of uncontrolled scientific development Robin Henig argues in her history of the reproductive revolution that many of the slipper slope ethical arguments initially raised against IVF are now being used against human cloning and genetic engineering. However, she points out that many of the predictions made in arguments have not occurred. This project will test this conclusion by examining the influence of slippery slope ethical arguments on the historical development of legislation regulating IVF - a technology that is now widely accepted - and therapeutic cloning technologies. The project will: Produce empirical findings on the influence of slippery slope arguments on policy development; Examine how slippery slope concerns in public and academic ethical discourses affect policy development; Compare the outcomes predicted in these arguments, with the actual outcomes of the development of these technologies to examine the concept of fallacy within slippery slope arguments; and Consider the ethical validity of resulting legislative measures given the actual outcomes.

Amount: £3,700
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Student Elective Prize for Ms Kathryn E Newell 29 Aug 2008

Do adverse social factors in a resource poor environment impact on the aetiology, identification and treatment of multi-drug resistant (MDR) in a Tibetan refugee population?

Amount: £1,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Oxford Forum for Medical Humanities Symposium 'Neuroethics'. 18 Apr 2007

Neuroethics The symposium will have three sessions, arranged around the ethical implications of the rapidly advancing field of neuroscience, addressing key areas of brain imaging, pharmacological cognitive enhancement and artificial intelligence. We shall also discuss the extent to which new definitions of biological abnormalities within neuroscience may exempt individuals from prosecution or potentially identify them as genetic markers of violence. The first session will consider recent advances in 'SMART drugs' the ethical implications of cognitive enhancement and the social and philosophical issues of recent advances in artificial intelligence. Secondly we shall discuss the ethics of brain reading and the controversy of the spiritual influence of the soul over conscious action. We shall conclude by addressing the responsibilities of individuals in society, the influence of genetic abnormalities versus personal choice and the legal determination of criminal responsibility. Often conferences are focused within one field, although there are clearly many conferences that draw together researchers from law and bioethics. This gathering, held by the Oxford Forum for Medial Humanities will broaden the dialogue beyond this approach, and actively bring into the conversation these other fields - medical anthropology, history of medicine and theology. Similarly, while there are many conferences that cover issues raised by the ethical implications of drug enhancement of intelligence or the influence of genetics over spiritual control, legal implications of psychiatric disease but these usually targeted at ethicists, clinicians and lawyers. This gathering is needed, as it will invite speakers from these other disciplines, to engage in discussion on these issues about life and life choices.

Amount: £3,500
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Reading and Replicating Bodies: Mimicry in Medicine and Culture, 1790-1914 (an Interdisciplinary workshop). 25 Nov 2014

This one-day workshop will bring together scholars working on the subject of mimicry in the history of medicine. The event will explore how, in nineteenth-century medicine and culture, to know a body was to replicate it. It will ask how medical practices and representations sought to mechanically imitate the body with perfect accuracy, from anatomical models and drawings to prosthetics. How did such replication interact with wider cultural anxieties about the mechanization of the human body? The workshop will also discuss how medicine, and the arts more generally, came to represent human bodies as social-emotional mirrors that instinctively mimicked each other. The meeting will analyse the different, sometimes contradictory, views which emerged of such mimicry, sometimes pathologized as primitive or degenerate, and other times valued as a natural source of sympathy and empathy between humans. The event will trace the afterlife of these practices and concepts in modern bioethical debate s and views of humans as copying animals. The workshop will be held at The Oxford Research Centre in the Humanities (TORCH) and we plan to publish essays based on the event in a guest-edited issue of the open-access online journal 19: Interdisciplinary Studies in the Long Nineteenth Century.

Amount: £1,722
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Food across the ages - a generational look at relationships with food 25 Nov 2014

Using case studies, we will examine changes in attitudes and practise to food in Vietnam. Inter-generational pairing of community members offers a fun means of creating community-led stories about the similarities and differencesthat young and old may have in their attitudes and behaviour around food. These stories will complement stories gathered from other WT sites in Asia andAfrica and feed into the WT's Food & Drink Initiative.

Amount: £3,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford
Amount: £1,996
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Experience as Evidence: The Sciences of Subjectivity in Healthcare, Policy and Practice. 23 Jun 2014

The patient experience has long been regarded as a valuable source of knowledge in healthcare. Traditionally framed as the 'subjective' counterpart to 'objective' biomedical knowledge, experiential knowledge has been used to critique biomedical reductionism and promote patient-centred care. Bolstered by patient activism, health consumerism, and concerns over standards of care, over the last fifty years a range of technologies that collate patient experiences, such as customer satisfaction survey s and Patient Experience Trackers (PET), have moved into the medical mainstream. More recently, internet technologies are enabling the large-scale collection, aggregation and quantification of different forms of experiential data, enhancing and transforming these pre-existing technologies of experience. Despite the ubiquity and prominence of technologies for turning subjective experience into portable forms of knowledge, their history, assumptions and practical implications are rarely examin ed. This symposium will bring together a leading interdisciplinary group of scholars and practitioners to explore the new forms of knowledge being produced through the codification and quantification of patient experiences, and the consequences this has for the future of healthcare. It will encourage innovative, cross-disciplinary, dialogue, tackling emergent themes, such as the quantified-self movement and the neurosciences, which stretch the boundaries of traditional research on the patient ex perience.

Amount: £4,725
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

The ethical dilemmas experienced by front line healthcare professionals at times of austerity; the case of Greece. 10 Feb 2014

The 2008 financial crisis and the austerity measures which followed, have gravely affected healthcare systems in many European countries, including Greece. For instance, Greece has witnessed hospital budgets reduced by 40% and increased unemployment, which has left 1.5 million people without public health insurance. Studies in developing countries show that the availability of healthcare resources shapes the nature and intensity of ethical decision-making for frontline staff. Yet, the effects of austerity on the ethical dilemmas of medical practice in developed countries remain unexamined. This study seeks to explore the ethical issues of health professionals in austerity-laden countries. Its initial focus will be on Greece where the austerity measures have had a dramatic effect on the healthcare landscape. This study's key goal is to investigate the ethical issues faced by frontline healthcare professionals at times of financial instability and austerity. It will be multi-disciplinary in using both semi-structured interviews and ethical analysis in exploring the effects of austerity on doctor-patient relationships, and relationships between healthcare professionals and the institutions in which they operate. This study's findings will provide rigorous and independent data that could inform health policy in Greece and other countries that consider restructuring of their healthcare system.

Amount: £4,900
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford
Amount: £4,960
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Scoping and Collaboration Exercise for Epilepsy Research in Zimbabwe 31 May 2016

This application requests funds for two speakers from Zimbabwe to attend a conference I am co-organising at St Antony's College, Oxford. The theme is Health and Politics in Zimbabwe and the Diasporas. The Research Day will examine the politics of health provision, health culture, change and development, exploring history, practice and impacts. The experiences of Zimbabwean health professionals abroad will be a key part of the conversation. The day will include a mix of well-known and up and coming researchers and practitioners, academics and non-academics. It will be a forum for debate, shared experiences, new research and future thinking. My invited speakers are contacts working in Zimbabwe on 1) health policy and 2) epilepsy. I have conducted a 2 week pilot visit to Zimbabwe in order to identify field sites for a larger grant application on the history of epilepsy in Africa. Both of these contacts will be instrumental for future research. In addition to the Oxford conference, I will organise meetings for the speakers with researchers interested in mental health and epilepsy in Zimbabwe/Africa, as well as visits to the Wellcome Unit for the History of Medicine, Oxford, Wellcome Library in London, Epilepsy Research UK and Epilepsy Action, London.

Amount: £2,706
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Interaction of the RNA binding protein Spen with Xist RNA 01 Apr 2016

My research will look into the role of the transcriptional repressor Spen in X inativation. Spen has already been found to be associated with the long non-coding RNA Xist that is known to mediate X inactivation by coating the surface of the inactive X chromosome. The nature of the interaction of Spen with Xist has not been investiagted in detail - the goal of my project is to characterise this interaction. My project will examine the importance of an RNA recognition motif (RRM) domain on the Spen protein, investigating its role in Xist binding. I will generate a mutant construct of Spen with the RRM domain of interest deleted, and examine its colocalisation with Xist. Xist will be expressed from an inducible promoter. The results of my project will generate data that will help to ascertain the importance of the RRM of Spen for Xist binding, helping to provide insights into the mechanism of X inactivation.

Amount: £2,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Structural insights into the Rifin protein family of the malaria parasite 01 Apr 2016

Members of the RIFIN family of Plasmodium falciparum are expressed on the surfaces of infected erythrocytes, where they are one of the few surface protein families exposed to the host immune system. They are members of a broader protein family, including the stevors, virs and pirs that are expressed across malaria parasites. This project aims towards the structure of the extracellular domain of a rifin protein, which will allow us to understand the architecture of this entire family of proteins. It also aims to understand the molecular basis for the interaction of a rifin with a novel class of antibody molecule with a LAIR1 insertion and to the molecular basis for the interaction of a rifin with a blood group A antigen. These studies will help us to understand the role of this enigmatic Plasmodium surface protein family that have been implicated in disease severity.

Amount: £2,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Genome-wide DNase 1-hypersensitive sites ins byprofile in different mouse strains by DNase-sequencing. 15 Feb 2010

1. Construct massively parallel sequencing libraries from DNAse treated DNA obtained from erythroblasts from the reference strain, C57BL6/J. A library with the correct size distribution and validated by qPCR, will be used as the basis for comparison with data from other strains and as validation with array-based methods for DNAse hypersensitivity sites detection. 2. Construction of libraries from eight strains (A/J, AKR/J, C3H/HeJ, BALBc/J, CBA/J, DBA2/J and LP/J) previously used in a genome-wide mapping experiment of multiple phenotypes (included full blood count) 3. Mapping of hypersensitivity sites onto the whole genome sequences of these strains (obtained from the Sanger institute) 4. Validation of the functional involvement of sequence variants and comparison with the position of quantitative trait loci contributing to haematopoietic phenotypes

Amount: £1,736
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

"Making and sharpening knives" to be held at Oxford Conservation Consortium in September 2010 13 Jul 2010

This two-day workshop will offer training to mid-career book conservators in a skill which is fundamental to their practice. The skills developed in this workshop will be used in on-going work to conserve a collection of books which belonged to Charles Daubeny ( 1795-1867), a lay fellow in medicine at Magdalen College, Oxford, and a practising physician at Oxford's John Radcliffe Infirmary. Daubeny's heavily used working library is catalogued onto the University of Oxford online library catalogue (htt;://www.lib.ox.ac.uk/olis/) and is housed in the laboratory/lecture room which Daubeny built. The first phase of work on this important collection began in May 2009 and it is hoped that funding will be found to continue the work in the future. Edge tool sharpening is directly relevant to book conservation as a large array of small and large knives, often made by the conservator him/herself, is needed for activities such as lifting original leather when re-backing, edge paring and thinning . new leather to a particular thickness, shaping and scarfing parchment when repairing, etc.; the success of these operations is greatly enhanced by using edge tools which are custom made for specific purposes and suitably sharp. Sharpening is not always taught on book conservation courses and is a skill which can be picked up but often with difficulty. Other trades which use edge tools, such as carpentry, have very different sharpening practices designed for the requirements of their tools, such as woodworking planes, chisels, etc. which are sharpened to very different angles in comparison with book conservation edge tools. While there is some cross over, book conservators still often experience difficulty in adapting the sharpening techniques of woodworkers to their conservation tools and requirements. In addition, there are very few suppliers from whom it is possible to purchase ready-made knives. This course will be a first in the UK, offering participants the sharpening and knife-making skills tailored to their requirements and delivered by a practising book conservator and knife maker, Jeff Peachey. . Oxford Conservation Consortium seeks funding to offer this course to book conservators who wish to improve their sharpening skills, make new knives for specific purposes, improve their existing tools such as spokeshaves. The number of participants has been held to eight conservators so that individual attention is ensured. We have explored other options for providing sharpening training, such as attending the residential course at West Dean, and engaging a woodworker to deliver the training. We were recently informed that the West Dean course is offered only occasionally, and furthermore, being a five-day residential course, a significant financial/time commitment is needed which may not be practicable for many book conservators. Initial discussions with a woodworker were abandoned, as it became clear that there was a clear divide between the sharpening techniques and nature of edge tools used in carpentry and those useful to book conservation. The course description, budget, and biography of the course instructor may be found below. OCC's small training budget (£1545/annum) is shared between five conservators and is also used to support accreditation (3/5 staff are Accredited Members ofthe Institute of Conservation). We hope that the Wellcome Trust RRMH small grants scheme will be in a position to support this training opportunity by funding the cost of this workshop which we hope to run in September 2010 at OCC.

Amount: £1,638
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Continuity and Change in Russian Therapy, University of Oxford, 5-6 June 2014. 10 Feb 2014

This workshop of social historians of Russian/Soviet medicine will discuss new research on the theme of therapy in Russian medical history. The papers critiqued at this workshop will be published in an edited volume. The meeting will enable us to renew and expand our international research network of social and cultural historians of Russian medicine. Histories of Russian and Soviet medicine typically concentrate on the institutions, professions, and research that framed the discipline. Less att ention however has focused on the therapeutic relationship between Russian/Soviet doctors and their patients. Risse's observation (1991) that treatment is a social ritual very much shaped by the prevailing cultural milieu, the patient-healer relationship, current medical knowledge and experience, the actual therapeutic setting, and more recently, the contours of medical technology , may be fruitfully applied to the Russian and Soviet case. This workshop will therefore explore the broad category of lechenie (i.e., therapy, or treatment) as a window on the political, social and cultural history of Russian and Soviet medicine, but also as a way of illuminating wider problems in the history of the individual in Russia.

Amount: £4,810
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Symposium: an introduction for those medical and science graduates consideringpursuing a career in tropical medicine research. 23 Jan 2006

Training in the Tropics The meeting will allow the directors of the major UK sponsored tropical medicine research groups to give brief presentations about the work of these units and about the opportunities that exist for gaining research experience and training in tropical medicine. This is crucial to bring in "new blood" for the research community. It allows junior staff who are working out with the main UK based centres to be able to interact with frontline staff in various disciplines. The meeting also allows discussion of funding opportunities with the main funders in the UK and allows an introduction to the fellowship programmes. The final part is a representative from the Royal College of Physicians specialist advisor committee who advise on the implications for training and promotion within the UK system.

Amount: £1,650
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Student Elective Prize for Ms Katherine Talbot 29 Aug 2008

Are increases in intracranial pressure at high altitude correlated with acute mountain sickness?

Amount: £1,600
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford