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Amounts:
£1,000 - £5,000
Recipients:
University of Oxford

Results

Childhood Maltreatment and Lifetime Resilience: an archival pilot study. 20 Jul 2015

Childhood maltreatment and lifetime resilience is a new research project that seeks to understand the lives of people who experienced maltreatment during childhoods in Britain c.1930-1975. The project is innovatively interdisciplinary and collaborative, combining historical and psychological approaches to study how, and to what extent, people navigated pathways to resilience across their lives. Existing studies of resilience in the face of maltreatment have focused on protective factors in child hood, so that little is known about pathways to resilience over the life-course and how historically-specific understandings of maltreatment affect these. This research begins to fill these gaps in academic scholarship, so as to also contribute to improvements in policy-making and practice. Our application relates to the first stage of this research, in order to conduct a small pilot study using the archives of The Children's Society. The relevant case files relating to children who grew up i n charitable care following identified maltreatment are uncatalogued and have not been subject to previous academic study. It is therefore necessary to conduct an initial systematic examination of these files, so as to plan future research with the knowledge of possibilities and challenges these sources pose for qualitative and quantitative analysis.

Amount: £4,437
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Digitisation of the Journal of the Royal Naval Medical Service archive, 1915-present. 25 Nov 2014

To preserve and provide access to, the archive of 14,349 pages of the Journal of the Royal Naval Medical Service by digitisation.

Amount: £2,230
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Application for student and developing country bursaries to attend the HeLEX Oxford & ELSI 2.0 Conference 'Exploring ELSI aspects of translation in healthcare', University of Oxford, June 2015. 27 Oct 2014

This HeLEX five year celebration and inaugural ELSI 2.0 conference will be held in Oxford on the 23rd, 24th and 25th of June 2015 and will explore the broad theme of Translation in Healthcare. It will be an interactive event allowing people from a wide range of disciplines to contribute to discussion and engage with these issues. Often the best connections and most exciting ideas begin in the coffee break; we want to capture this quality and apply it to the whole conference. HeLEX and ELSI 2.0 w ant to build on ELSI work to date by looking outward to make connections and invite wider perspectives on the global ELSI agenda, especially from hitherto under-represented parts of the world. In part this will involve much greater use of networking and collaboration technologies but this also involves invitation of as many researchers and students from around the world as possible to attend this conference and become involved in ELSI 2.0 from the outset. For this reason we are particularly see king funding for bursaries for students and attendees from low resource countries to attend the conference which will then be open for applications on our website.

Amount: £4,990
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Laser capture microdissection to investigate bacterial handling defects in patients with monogenic inflammatory bowel disease 01 Apr 2016

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is linked to defective bacterial handling in Crohn’s disease and monogenic diseases (Hugot et al. Nature 2001, Ogura et al. Nature 2002, Cooney et al. Nature Medicine 2010, Uhlig Gut 2013 and Uhlig et al. Gastroenterology 2014). Hypothesis: If defects in clearance of ingested bacteria cause granuloma formation we expect to find surviving bacteria (and its mRNA) in the granuloma lesions. Experimental Design Formalin-fixed archived tissue sections from patients with monogenic forms of IBD (XIAP , G6PC3 or HPS1) will be cut onto a capture membrane and stained with H&E. Granuloma will be isolated using laser capture micro dissection. 16S rRNA will be amplified using high fidelity PCR and sequenced. Comparison of the obtained sequences with public databases will establish which bacterial taxa. This project will help to identify bacteria that survive within macrophages and improve the understanding of the host-environment relationship.

Amount: £2,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Food across the ages - a generational look at relationships with food 25 Nov 2014

Using case studies, we will examine changes in attitudes and practise to food in Vietnam. Inter-generational pairing of community members offers a fun means of creating community-led stories about the similarities and differencesthat young and old may have in their attitudes and behaviour around food. These stories will complement stories gathered from other WT sites in Asia andAfrica and feed into the WT's Food & Drink Initiative.

Amount: £3,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Oxford Forum for Medical Humanities Symposium 'Neuroethics'. 18 Apr 2007

Neuroethics The symposium will have three sessions, arranged around the ethical implications of the rapidly advancing field of neuroscience, addressing key areas of brain imaging, pharmacological cognitive enhancement and artificial intelligence. We shall also discuss the extent to which new definitions of biological abnormalities within neuroscience may exempt individuals from prosecution or potentially identify them as genetic markers of violence. The first session will consider recent advances in 'SMART drugs' the ethical implications of cognitive enhancement and the social and philosophical issues of recent advances in artificial intelligence. Secondly we shall discuss the ethics of brain reading and the controversy of the spiritual influence of the soul over conscious action. We shall conclude by addressing the responsibilities of individuals in society, the influence of genetic abnormalities versus personal choice and the legal determination of criminal responsibility. Often conferences are focused within one field, although there are clearly many conferences that draw together researchers from law and bioethics. This gathering, held by the Oxford Forum for Medial Humanities will broaden the dialogue beyond this approach, and actively bring into the conversation these other fields - medical anthropology, history of medicine and theology. Similarly, while there are many conferences that cover issues raised by the ethical implications of drug enhancement of intelligence or the influence of genetics over spiritual control, legal implications of psychiatric disease but these usually targeted at ethicists, clinicians and lawyers. This gathering is needed, as it will invite speakers from these other disciplines, to engage in discussion on these issues about life and life choices.

Amount: £3,500
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Tropical Tensions: British ideas of medicine, hygiene and sanitation in warm climates, 1870-1914. 27 Oct 2006

The historiography of tropical medicine and hygiene is dominated by its evolution from a marginalized and diffuse body of knowledge at the periphery, towards a consolidated metropolitan discourse empowering a 'new' imperialism. Such histories typically narrate the role of practitioners, tropical colonies, colonial administrations, and parasitic diseases in the development of a modern, and institutionalized discipline. Important as these approaches are, the discourses they describe were neither as stable, nor straightforward. This thesis argues that ideas of British tropical medicine, hygiene and sanitation during the period of 1870 to 1914 are best understood by examining local tensions they experienced both at home and abroad. Throughout Western discourse the tropics have been subject to tension - a 'tropical alterity' - paradisiacal and pestilential, luxuriant abundance set amidst violence and destruction. The 'otherness' of the tropics was neither inherent nor stable, but was continuously maintained and defined. The right to define and maintain 'tropical' identities was a source of great tension. Interactions between British and indigenous medicine and science created and established a hybrid of identities and knowledge, blurring distinctions between centre and periphery. Several 'central peripheries' created and disseminated knowledge between what Chambers and Gillespie have identified as a 'polycentric communications network'. However, the distributed power between these 'centres' was not equal, precipitating various points of tension. The outline is as follows: Chapter - I: The London Livingston Exhibitions: 'tabloids', flannel binders and the preservation of health in tropical climates; Chapter - II: Netley School of Medicine; Chapter - III: Tropical Surgeons; Chapter - IV: Tropical Medical Missionaries; Chapter - V: 'Tropical' Plague; Chapter - VI: Tropical Waste Management. The majority of my research material is found at Oxford and the Wellcome Library at UCL. Since the first half of my thesis is primarily concerned with lay and popular perceptions of tropical medicine, hygiene and sanitation, the majority of my sources are found at British institutions. However, once I consider the movement of ideas into various local tropical settings - through medical missionaries and tropical surgeons - I will be required to travel to such locations to gain access to a range of primary sources, as well as considering the context first hand.

Amount: £1,500
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Symposium: an introduction for those medical and science graduates consideringpursuing a career in tropical medicine research. 23 Jan 2006

Training in the Tropics The meeting will allow the directors of the major UK sponsored tropical medicine research groups to give brief presentations about the work of these units and about the opportunities that exist for gaining research experience and training in tropical medicine. This is crucial to bring in "new blood" for the research community. It allows junior staff who are working out with the main UK based centres to be able to interact with frontline staff in various disciplines. The meeting also allows discussion of funding opportunities with the main funders in the UK and allows an introduction to the fellowship programmes. The final part is a representative from the Royal College of Physicians specialist advisor committee who advise on the implications for training and promotion within the UK system.

Amount: £1,650
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Genetic analysis of latrophilin function in the mouse. 29 Aug 2008

WT Studentship - 4 yr PhD The LN7TM family - an usual subclass of G-protein coupled receptor G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) are key regulators of many biological processes, and the targets for a large number of successful drugs. The investigation of uncharacterized "orphan" GPCR is a promising area for understanding disease biology and a priority for the development of new therapeutics. The LN-7TM receptors are the least well understood family of GPCR, characterized by an unusual domain structure with a long N-terminus (LN) and a secretin-receptor-like seven-transmembrane (7-TM domain. The N-terminus typically contains protein domains found in adhesion molecules. Mammalian genomes encode for around 30 receptors of this type. Very little information is available about ligands, signaling mechanisms and the physiological functions of LN-7TM receptors. Recent reports associate several members of the family with clinically relevant neurological phenotypes. For example, mutations in the human GPR56 gene cause bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria, a rare inherited disease with defects in cortical lamination. Latrophilins - highly conserved LN-7TM receptors acting in the nervous system The calcium-independent receptor of latrotoxin (CIRL/Latrophilin, CL), defines a subfamily of LN-7TMs which is very highly conserved in evolution, suggesting that it fulfils a fundamental function conserved across phyla. In mammals there are three unlinked paralogs, CL1-3, while C.elegans encodes two paralogs, lat-1 and lat-2. In contrast, other receptors like GPR56 or the GPR110-116 cluster seem to have evolved more recently and are still rapidly evolving in vertebrates (Russ et al, unpublished). The endogenous ligands and signal transduction pathways of CLs are not known. The project will address the following questions by genetic analysis in the mouse model: Is CL signaling required for the development of the nervous system? Are the functions of the CL paralogs CL1-3 specialize or partly overlapping? Does CL function modulate synaptic signaling?

Amount: £4,808
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Student Elective Prize for Ms Katherine Talbot 29 Aug 2008

Are increases in intracranial pressure at high altitude correlated with acute mountain sickness?

Amount: £1,600
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Ethics, Equipoise and Research on Charged Particle Therapy. 12 Jul 2011

The clinical use of charged particle therapy to treat cancer is rapidly expanding worldwide. There is much debate about whether more clinical trials are necessary before this modality is brought into widespread use for many different cancers. This workshop seeks to make definitive progress on this debate by bringing together leaders in the relevant fields (radiation oncology, research ethics, medical physics, radiobiology, and health policy), as well as proponents on both sides of the debate, in an effort to make significant progress on the ethical issues associated with clinical trials of charged particle therapy. This progress will be achieved by endeavouring to reach a consensus, in the specific context of proton therapy research, about the nature of the concept of equipoise, its ethical significance and its application. The immediate aim of the workshop is to develop a consensus statement about these questions that will be published with all participants as co-authors. It is hoped that this consensus statement can provide an ethical platform on which future research can be built. It is also hoped that this workshop will enable further work to be done on developing the more specific details of an internationally coordinated program of research.

Amount: £4,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

"Second annual medical history workshop for postgraduate historians" to be held at Oxford in 15-16 September 2011 12 Jul 2011

The workshop has four main aims. Firstly, to bring together (200 words) postgraduate medical history students working in Centres around the country on a variety of topics and time-periods. Centres for medical history are often relatively small and isolated within their History Departments, and graduate students especially so, and it would therefore be advantageous to provide an opportunity for creating and strengthening ties between medical historians through the forging of new contacts and networks. The second aim is to engage with a diverse range of methodologies and research strategies. Students working in different areas will bring a variety of research backgrounds, skills, and areas of expertise. It will be fruitful therefore for students to share and compare research methodologies for mutual benefit. Thirdly, the workshop will furnish postgraduates with the intellectual support that they need for undertaking their studies. This will be achieved be achieved through the delivery of question and answer sessions giving tips and advice, answering questions and opening up discussion of some of the practical and academic challenges faced by medical historians. Finally, the workshop will provided a forum for the Trust to inform scholars about its longer-term research support strategy for both doctoral and post-doctoral research.

Amount: £4,975
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Autonomy and Solidarity two conflicting values in bioethics? British and French perspectives on two core values in health care and medicine . 15 Sep 2014

We would like to hold a one and a half day workshop with scholars from Great Britain (n=5) and France (n=5). Our aim is to deepen the analysis of two core values in bioethics debates that are sometimes seen as contrasting: respect for autonomy and solidarity. Whereas respect for autonomy is the leading principle of British as well as wider Anglo-American health care ethics, solidarity is dominant in the French and broader continental European discourse. By exploring the culture-specific meaning and use of normative concepts we will improve synergies between bioethical discussions and scholarships between countries. This, in turn, will inform the development of ethical frameworks that respond to the social and cultural variety of different countries, hence contribute to the internationalisation of bioethics. More precisely, we suggest exploring the role of both concepts in health care law and politics, as well as in the professional, and academic discourse in each country. Furthermore , we examine how the different approaches are reflected in health care practices. Invited speakers are from different disciplinary backgrounds including law, bioethics, philosophy, history, and sociology.

Amount: £3,070
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Unseen City: Travelling Psychoanalysis and the Urban Poor. 14 Apr 2014

Unseen City: Travelling Psychoanalysis and the Urban Poor examines the institution of psychoanalysis and its underdeveloped relationship with race and urban poverty, as seen in the context of Mumbai, London, and New York. The outcome will be a monograph, which draws on a range of literature, cinema, art, and image archives to explore the following: prevalent psychoanalytic practices in global cities; state policy on poverty and mental disease (and viable alternatives); the dialogue between cultu ral and social discourses and medical initiatives on poverty. This multidisciplinary project requires knowledge-sharing. I will use the grant money to conduct scoping exercises and field research in India in July-August 2014: 1. I will conduct interviews at a) The Association of the Mentally Challenged and b) The All India Institute of Mental Health (current NIMHANS), based in Bangalore. Both run mental health clinics for the poor. 2. I will interview members of the Indian Psychoan alytical Society, Kolkata, and also conduct interviews with Professors Santanu Biswas and Josodhara Bagchi, who work in social welfare collectives. 3. I will gather video and audio data in the Dharavi slum of Mumbai. I will be collaborating with URBZ, an urban research and action collective in Mumbai, for this work.

Amount: £4,940
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Phenomenology and Health: An Interdisciplinary Symposium. 30 Jan 2015

'Phenomenology and Health: An Interdisciplinary Symposium' will take place 27-28 March 2015 at The Oxford Research Centre in the Humanities (TORCH). This meeting will explore and assess the role of phenomenology in health-related research and practice. We aim to stimulate cross-disciplinary discussions between scholars of science and humanities and those engaged in phenomenological practice outside of academia. Phenomenology's concept of bodily consciousness is informing research into the li ved experience of health conditions, enabling explorations of the subjective aspects of illness not always accounted for by more naturalistic approaches. Its emphasis on the social dimensions of selfhood is proving valuable for psychotherapists, nurses, GPs, and others who work closely with clients and patients. Humanities researchers are using phenomenology to think through representations of health, illness, and disability in literature, art, film, and other forms of historical and contemporar y media, and to consider the experience of ill people from ethical and ontological perspectives. From Merleau-Ponty's body-subject and Sartre's thoughts on pain to important works such as Fredrik Svenaeus' The Hermeneutics of Medicine and the Phenomenology of Health (2000) and Havi Carel's Illness: The Cry of the Flesh (2008), phenomenology provides multiple frameworks for the study and practice of healthcare.

Amount: £3,029
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Scoping and Collaboration Exercise for Epilepsy Research in Zimbabwe 31 May 2016

This application requests funds for two speakers from Zimbabwe to attend a conference I am co-organising at St Antony's College, Oxford. The theme is Health and Politics in Zimbabwe and the Diasporas. The Research Day will examine the politics of health provision, health culture, change and development, exploring history, practice and impacts. The experiences of Zimbabwean health professionals abroad will be a key part of the conversation. The day will include a mix of well-known and up and coming researchers and practitioners, academics and non-academics. It will be a forum for debate, shared experiences, new research and future thinking. My invited speakers are contacts working in Zimbabwe on 1) health policy and 2) epilepsy. I have conducted a 2 week pilot visit to Zimbabwe in order to identify field sites for a larger grant application on the history of epilepsy in Africa. Both of these contacts will be instrumental for future research. In addition to the Oxford conference, I will organise meetings for the speakers with researchers interested in mental health and epilepsy in Zimbabwe/Africa, as well as visits to the Wellcome Unit for the History of Medicine, Oxford, Wellcome Library in London, Epilepsy Research UK and Epilepsy Action, London.

Amount: £2,706
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Interaction of the RNA binding protein Spen with Xist RNA 01 Apr 2016

My research will look into the role of the transcriptional repressor Spen in X inativation. Spen has already been found to be associated with the long non-coding RNA Xist that is known to mediate X inactivation by coating the surface of the inactive X chromosome. The nature of the interaction of Spen with Xist has not been investiagted in detail - the goal of my project is to characterise this interaction. My project will examine the importance of an RNA recognition motif (RRM) domain on the Spen protein, investigating its role in Xist binding. I will generate a mutant construct of Spen with the RRM domain of interest deleted, and examine its colocalisation with Xist. Xist will be expressed from an inducible promoter. The results of my project will generate data that will help to ascertain the importance of the RRM of Spen for Xist binding, helping to provide insights into the mechanism of X inactivation.

Amount: £2,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Structural insights into the link between GATA2 and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). 01 Apr 2016

Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a blood-related disease characterised by the uncontrolled proliferation of haematopoietic stem cells lacking the ability to commit to normal differentiation. It is highly malignant, with only a 25% survival rate 5 years after diagnosis, despite intensive therapeutic treatments. GATA2 is a zinc-finger (ZnF) transcription factor broadly expressed in haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). GATA2 is necessary for maintenance of a regenerative HSC pool as well as lineage-restricted differentiation. Given this, it is perhaps unsurprising that GATA2 mutations have been linked with AML. Currently, little is known about the mechanism of GATA2 function in leukaemias. GATA2 contains 2 ZnF domains (NF and CF), which have been shown to bind different DNA motifs and protein partners in vivo. I postulate that these interactions are necessary for the biologial activity of GATA2, and will attempt to show that mutations in the NF and CF domains result in loss of this activity. This will be achieved by using a combination of methods including bioinformatics, molecular docking and in vitro biophysical studies using generated GATA2 mutants. This research aims to show that GATA2 mutants deregulate HSC proliferation by virtue of altering its ability to interact with cognate partners.

Amount: £2,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Modelling the evolutionary epidemiology of chronic viral infections: Incorporating host heterogeneity into nested models of virus evolution 01 Apr 2016

One of the principal challenges in epidemiology is using mathematical models to plan disease control. This is made more challenging by pathogen evolution, which increases the complexity of disease dynamics, acting as a barrier to effective control. Chronic viruses such as HIV exhibit evolution over significantly shorter timescales than the long duration of infection. Understanding pathogen evolution and including it in models is therefore a key challenge for mathematical biologists. This project will explore how heterogeneity between hosts affects evolutionary dynamics at the population scale, building on a model in an existing paper that assumes that all hosts are identical. In this project, the model will be extended to include the heterogeneous immune responses to infection observed in different individuals. The dynamics of this new model will then be compared with the model in which all individuals are identical. Mathematical techniques required for this project include analysis of integro-differential equations (such as calculation of equilibria) and examination of the behaviour of integro-differential equations via numerical solution. The key goal is to develop a model of virus evolution that includes heterogeneous host types, and to investigate the evolutionary behaviour predicted by the model with different extents of host heterogeneity.

Amount: £1,750
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford