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Adult-Neurogenesis and Network Remodeling on Zebrafish Telencephalon 04 Dec 2017

Zebrafish exhibits adult neurogenesis throughout their brain, conferring them the amazing ability to regenerate damaged brain regions. The study of network remodeling by adult neurogenesis involves complex relationships between newly-added neurons, preexisting networks, and neuronal activity. This proposal combines my expertise on adult-neurogenesis and information processing, the zebrafish capability to perform network remodeling, and the available genetic tools to label different zebrafish neuronal types, as: progenitors, glutammatergic and GABAergic neurons. By combining these transgenic fishes with BrdU tracing, molecular marker detection and electrophysiology, we will able to perform a rigorous and elegant characterization of the different neuronal repertoire contributed by adult neurogenesis to telencephalic pallial networks. Furthermore, the impact of cognitive function on network remodeling will be tested by in vivo two-photon Ca2+ imaging on different cohorts of new-neurons. This project will be the seed for further research on functional neuronal regeneration and de novo wiring of pallial regions, assessed by the physiological and behavioral recovering of lesioned brain.

The role of TRIM25's RNA-binding activity in RIG-I/Interferon pathway. 04 Dec 2017

I recently discovered that the TRIM25 E3 ubiquitin ligase, which is a key factor in the innate immune, RIG-I/Interferon type 1 response to RNA viruses, is an RNA-binding protein that recognises specific host RNAs and regulates their stability. This important finding redefines our understanding of the regulation of host RNA metabolism and opens new questions about the fundamental mechanisms of cell biology and innate immunity. My overall goal is to discover new phenomena occurring at the interface between RNA biology and human disease. Here, I will focus on what role does newly identified RNA-binding activity of TRIM25 have in innate immune response to 5'-ppp-RNAs and Influenza A infection. Towards this aim, I will address the following: How does the RNA-binding activity of TRIM25 affect its ability to stimulate the RIG-I/Interferon signalling pathway? The outcome of this research will redefine our understanding of the control of RIG-I/Interferon signalling pathway and has huge potential to open up novel research avenues in the field of innate immunity and RNA biology.

Amount: £87,429
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Edinburgh

EpiChange: Quantifying longitudinal changes after epilepsy surgery 04 Dec 2017

Resective surgery for epilepsy, where the part of the brain thought to cause seizures is removed, leads to seizure freedom in around 70% of patients 1 year post-surgery. This falls to around 50% at 5 years post-surgery. It is not fully understood why surgery only works initially for some patients, and why this falls over time post-operatively. Surgery has a substantial immediate impact on brain structure, however, the long-term impact of surgery on brain dynamics is poorly understood. In order to make progress in this area we will perform a retrospective analysis of longitudinally acquired electroencephalographic (EEG) data. EEG recordings were made pre-operatively, and post-operatively in 76 patients for up to 5 years. Using univariate and multivariate data analysis, in conjunction with machine learning, we will learn how brain dynamics change after surgery, and if this change relates to outcome. Crucially, we will attempt to identify which factors in brain dynamics correlate with seizure relapse, even years after surgery. If successful, this will pave the way to a larger project where changes can be reverse engineered to give predictions of post-operative decline using pre-operative data. Long-term, this research has implications for other disorders involving longitudinal decline following structural brain damage.

Amount: £99,978
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Newcastle University

Health for All in An Unequal World: Obligations of Global Bioethics 04 Dec 2017

Despite several gains in health research and healthcare, global health insecurity is a formidable challenge for the health and bioethics communities. The public health crisis due to Ebola, Zika, and the conflict induced devastations across the globe, for instance, are testimonials of these realities – the inequities, the poor plight of national as well as global health systems, their preparedness and the ethical issues therein. Given this, the 14th World Congress of Bioethics (WCB) by the International Association of Bioethics, scheduled during 4-7 December 2018 in Delhi, India is being organized by Sama Resource Group for Women and Health and Forum for Medical Ethics Society on the theme of "Health for All in An Unequal World: Obligations of Global Bioethics". The Congress will establish deeper synergies between multi-disciplinary constituencies towards strengthened ethical practice, policy, law in the context of Health for All. Activities leading to and during the Congress will enable mobilization, skill building and networking, particularly of the next generation of South-Asian bioethicists and provide a platform for intersectional dialogue. A spectrum of sub thematic areas drawn from the main Congress theme will be discussed at the Congress.

Global Health 50/50: Towards accountability for gender equality in global health 04 Dec 2017

We propose to establish Global Health 50/50, a new initiative seeking to advance action and accountability for gender-equality in global health. Gender is a key driver of power to exercise the right to health, including exposure to risks of poor health, health seeking behaviours, and access to quality health care. Gender inequalities continue to define and drive career pathways and opportunities for people working in global health organizations. While some progress has been made, major gaps and challenges remain. We seek to raise awareness of persistent inequality and identify pathways to change. We will establish a network of experts in gender and global health, working with an advisory body drawn from the realms of politics, development, management, advocacy, human rights, social justice. Global Health 50/50 will publish an annual report on the state of gender-related policies and practices of 150 major organizations working in the field of global health.

Amount: £29,764
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College London

Planning Families in Twentieth Century Sub-Saharan Africa 06 Nov 2017

Project: I will use my sabbatical in 2018 to conduct research towards a new research project, Planning Families in Twentieth Century Sub-Saharan Africa. The project centres on attempts to reconfigure the African family in the twentieth century, including the role of family planning and birth control. The project will constitute a significant intervention into the history of gender, aid, and post-coloniality in Africa.This project will be comparative in nature, focusing on Nigeria, Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania and South Africa. Project Goal: To date there has been no systematic study of the history of birth control technologies in independent Africa. Producing one is a significant and important goal of my research. Relevance to Wellcome Trust: As part of the project I need to investigate key collections in the Wellcome Library. Some of these are reference in the archival guide: AMS/G/BCTitleArchives and Manuscripts Resource Guide, but this guide does not contain references to all relevant archival material and there is much more to be examined which is of relevance to Africa and which is not available online.

Amount: £3,480
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Johannesburg

The Islands and the Whales 03 Oct 2017

The project is to organise a nationwide series of rural and community screenings of The Islands and the Whales, which received funding from Wellcome. The screenings will be in cinemas, community venues and workplaces across the UK with a panel discussion about the issues raised in the film with relevant scientific experts. The project’s scientific adviser and leading expert Professor Philippe Grandjean will be on the panel at the film’s premiere and will advise on other panel members. The post-screening discussions will be live-streamed online and to the other screenings, recorded to increase the reach of public engagement and conversation. The programme will be accompanied by the launch of a supporting website. The aim of the project is to engage audiences in understanding how biomedical knowledge can be used in improving public health, even when there is strong cultural resistance to the policies proposed. The target audiences are health professionals, policy makers and the general public. We have already secured commitments to screen the film and support from outreach partners to promote screenings in their networks. The team which is delivering this project have considerable experience in producing projects of this sort, and three other organisations are providing support.

Amount: £20,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Intrepid Cinema

From 'A Penny in the Pound' to 'Free at the Point of Delivery': Cataloguing the pre- and post-1948 hospital records of Monmouthshire 16 Nov 2017

Key words: Monmouthshire hospital records; Welsh medical history; health records; Gwent Archives Gwent Archives holds an extensive and important collection of unlisted and partially catalogued (old) Monmouthshire hospital and health records. These records require cataloguing and conservation as a matter of priority to ensure long-term survival and accessibility. A view shared by a number of Wales’ leading historians who write in support of this bid, and will serve on an advisory board to oversee the development of this resource. A Research Resources Grant of £38,729 will fund a year project to: Create ISAD(g) compliant electronic catalogues Carry out cleaning and packaging of the documents. Implementation of these objectives will enable us to meet the following aims: To gain full intellectual and physical control over this important collection To professionally conserve the records To promote global accessibility to our health/ hospital catalogues To inspire interest and expertise in the medical history of Monmouthshire To promote academic research accessibility through standardisation The catalogues will be mounted on our website, the Archives Hub and incorporated into The National Archives/ Wellcome Library Hospital Records Database. A guide to our hospital and health collection and a project blog will also be produced.

Amount: £38,729
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Gwent Archives

A Case for the Ordinary: The Patient Experience of Mental Health Care in Staffordshire, 1818-1960 16 Nov 2017

This innovative cataloguing project will make accessible case notes of 38,000 patients treated in Staffordshire's three County Asylums, from 1818 to 1960. Collaboration with academic partners at the concept stage has ensured that research imperatives are addressed, with a particular emphasis on access to information in 20th-century patient records. The resources produced will be an open catalogue of early patient case files and a database of extracted information from case files less than 100 years old, the latter available through a simple access process agreed with our NHS Trusts. The method of cataloguing will permit a rolling programme of uploading newly open data to the catalogue and the ongoing involvement of our project advisory board will ensure that the resources have a wide academic reach. The breadth, completeness and representativeness of the Staffordshire collection and the resources produced by this project will offer a unique opportunity to interrogate data from patient case records for specific themes over an unprecedentedly long period. Staffordshire saw pioneering approaches in mental health care but conversely these records also provide an exceptional resource for studying the experience of ordinary English provincial patients at multiple sites over the broad sweep of public asylum history.

Amount: £167,519
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Staffordshire County Council

Urban Antibodies 06 Nov 2017

Urban Antibodies is a long-term project that imagines the city as a living organism, looking at sites of toxicity and vulnerability, healing and care - with a focus on plant knowledge and medicine. The project draws on historical research into the development of pharmaceutical drugs based on plants, with a focus on the Boots Archive (Nottingham) and Wellcome Library (London). I will research specific plants and their stories - with a particular focus on the import of ‘exotic’ plants through the era of British colonialism, the development of botany as a discipline and the development of major pharmaceutical drugs from plants. I will also be exploring specific urban sites to investigate histories of industrial pharmaceutical companies in relation to local plant knowledge, the role of women in the development of medicinal knowledge, and the institutionalisation of medicine. Through the research process I will gather material to generate new artwork, including site-based performance, video, print-making and writing.

Amount: £4,440
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: No Organisation

Lunatic Fringe 31 Oct 2017

For over 20 years our organisation has worked successfully to ensure that people who experience mental distress are able to feed into service commissioning, and to influence local mental health strategy through peer-led, community-based, action research. Changes in funding priorities for NHS England and local commissioners mean this route is no longer a viable one through which to ensure that ‘service user’ voices make a genuine difference to service design and delivery. Building on our extensive experience and contacts with arts-based/creative organisations and with researchers at The University of Liverpool; and our own expertise in co-ordinating Liverpool’s annual Mental Health Festival and Mad Pride events, we will develop a Living Lab. This will be a hub to support peer-led research and public engagement, around mental distress and community wellbeing, in collaboration with established university-based research groups. A key part of the programme will be independent evaluation enabling us to fine-tune the approach and secure longer-term sustainability through consultancy work and larger applications to e.g. Wellcome Trust and/or Big Lottery 'Reaching Communities'. Now is the time to find a sustainable route to ensure that service user and community voices are heard and responded to now and in the future.

Amount: £98,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Liverpool Mental Health Consortium

Vulnerability and justice in global health emergency regulation: developing future ethical models 30 Nov 2017

The Award will support the foundation of a network of academics, with the aim of developing proof-of-principle that ethical models and guidelines on global health emergencies (GHEs) can be better attuned to concerns of vulnerability and justice. The network will enable a step-change in the scholarship on vulnerability and justice in GHEs. GHEs, in this context, are defined as crises that affect health, and are (or should be) of international concern (e.g. epidemics and pandemics, health in conflicts or mass migration). Collaborators will explore strategies to increase the ethical robustness of future regulation across challenging events, using futures-studies methods. Ultimately this project will lead to a larger grant application using similar methodology and vision. Key goals: To contribute to conceptual and applied knowledge on the connection between vulnerability and justice in the context of GHEs (defining key concepts, identify gaps) To co-design with knowledge users (policy makers, humanitarian actors), ethical models and strategies for a futures-oriented approach to the regulation of GHEs. To develop scholarship, expertise and collaborations in view of a larger grant application (based on the vision that future GHE regulation and ethics can be better attuned to concerns of vulnerability and justice, using a futures-oriented approach)

Amount: £66,060
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Edinburgh

Safeguarding people with mental heath issues or learning disabilities during contact with the police 06 Nov 2017

People with mental health issues account for approximately 20-40% of police time and a substantial proportion of deaths in police custody. However, police forces are still struggling to identify interventions to better safeguard the welfare and lives of the mentally vulnerable. Using four Wellcome Library archives as a starting point, this project will develop a much needed evidence-base for understanding (i) how these health issues have come to dominate police time, (ii) what barriers exist for better police-health partnerships and, (iii) how to overcome them. The literature is patchy and highly dispersed, with even less research on safeguarding people with the closely related issue of learning disabilities. This project will take place at a time when national government, police forces and local health trusts are keen to develop more integrated services but face considerable barriers to making them successful. Therefore, this project is timely and will enhance our understanding about why progress is frustrating slow, improve decision-making, and identify conceptual black-holes for future inquiry. Recommendations will be developed and some will be tested for a subsequent, major grant application to the Wellcome Trust in collaboration with at least two police forces and their health trusts.

Amount: £18,849
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Using examination questions to assess practical skills in science 26 Jun 2017

The principal aim of the project is to identify the features of written examination questions that discriminate between students who have had substantial hands-on experience of practical work in GCSE science and those who have not. This project is important because recent changes in assessment mean practical skills are now wholly assessed through written examination questions. It is therefore essential to have a valid means of assessing practical skills that rewards students who have undertaken hands-on practical work. A series of classroom interventions will be developed in which students experience a practical activity either as hands-on practical work, a teacher demonstration, a video recording, or through a written description. Students will then complete written examination questions relating to the interventions. The outcomes will be: examples of questions that discriminate between students with different levels of hands-on practical experience, together with insights into characteristic, generalisable features of such questions guidance for examiners to support them in question writing evidence of the validity of the use of written questions to assess practical skills with a view to informing future iterations of the science curriculum. The project Advisory Group comprises representatives of the Awarding Organisations, Ofqual, the learned societies, ASE and science teachers.

Amount: £210,838
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of York

European Variation Archive 06 Jul 2017

The European Variation Archive (EVA, is a primary open repository for archiving, accessioning and distributing genome variation, including single nucleotide variants, short insertions and deletions (indels), and larger structural variants (SVs) in any species. Services to researchers include long-term archiving of variants; calculation of standard variant annotation; and an intuitive browser to query and view variants from studies or across an entire species. The EVA peers with the NCBI-based dbSNP and dbVar databases to form a worldwide network for exchanging and brokering submissions, and to assign permanent study and locus identifiers. As described in this proposal, the EVA will become solely responsible for variant locus accessioning for all non-human species. We will provide access to all of the controlled access variation data in the European Genome-phenome Archive (EGA) in the EVA browser. The EVA will continue leading community standards bodies, including tasks for the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health (GA4GH), to develop data models for variant representation, data formats and APIs for data integration with other resources. EVA’s comprehensive API is extensively used by translational and species-specific resources.

Amount: £1,542,764
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Embl At Hinxton

Contact capital project 16 Mar 2017

We are proposing a major capital redevelopment of our building, designed to transform the public and user experience of Contact - improving flow, circulation and readability across a series of outstanding public and artistic spaces. The project will extend the footprint of the current venue and reconfigure the interior to create new, flexible creative and learning spaces and improve our performance and working spaces – so increasing opportunities for young people. It will create a more open, accessible and welcoming public environment, both within and in the approach to the building. Technical infrastructure will be upgraded across the entire building and soundproofing improved. Works will include a range of measures designed to strengthen Contact’s environmental sustainability and to improve accessibility. Within this broader context we propose to create, with support from the Wellcome Trust, a dedicated new space on Contact’s ground floor, adjacent to the public foyer and café area and accessed directly from outside, to act as the ‘engine room’ for Contact’s creative activity around health sciences and related social issues. Through this space we plan to maximise cross-sectoral working and engagement between diverse young people and science and research communities. The space will provide a dynamic, accessible and stimulating public window into an integrated programme of creative engagement with health science research, led by a dedicated Health and Science Producer and embedded right across Contact’s creative development practice. The space will also provide an performance capabilities for public work-in-progress sharings, as well as debates, discussions and panel events.

Amount: £603,500
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Contact

Innovation Every Day 16 Mar 2017

On the eve of its 20th anniversary, the Thackray Medical Museum is proposing a major development to inspire people with the passion and purpose of medicine and healthcare, by transforming its public spaces into a venue for discovery and debate, fit for an inquisitive, 21st century audience. The £4.4m masterplan proposes a new layer of investment in both the museum experience and its home, the Grade II listed Leeds Union Workhouse, to create a sustainable, resilient organisation. In summary, the full masterplan will: Reinterpret collections and refurbish galleries; Create a level-access science and activity learning centre; Create a more accessible visitor entrance; Increase access to the Resource Centre and its collections; Improve the use of collections, including major loans requiring GIS standards; Secure the fabric of the Grade II listed building. By re-conceptualising the public galleries and learning spaces, this project will transform the Thackray Medical Museum, better enabling it to engage audiences with the history of medicine and medical innovation. It will create two contrasting operating theatres - one Victorian and one contemporary - to act as spaces for active engagement, developing inclusive, facilitator-led programmes that encourage dialogue, debate and participation. In addition, by building on our existing strengths, developing new skills and capacities, and nurturing strong relationships with leading organisations, we will encourage investigation and offer enjoyment to at least 85,000 visitors, and with stretch targets extending to a potential 120,000 visitors, per annum from across Yorkshire, and further afield, every year.

Amount: £50,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Thackray Museum

Optical Characterisation of Epithelial Tissue Function and Metabolism for Early Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment Monitoring 19 Apr 2017

This project addresses new avenues for advanced diagnosis and treatment assessment of epithelial cancer. A novel polarisation-sensitive optical tomographic technique for quantitative 3D assessment of tissue function and metabolism will be devised and implemented. A clinically comprehensive set of tissue optical parameters (specifically, tissue optical absorption and scattering parameters), as markers for tissue oxygenation, melanin concertation in skin, chiral protein concentration and structural anisotropy, will be defined. The technology will be applied to characterise in terms of these parameters (i) 3D cell cultures in cancer proliferation and drug evaluation studies, (ii) ovarian cancer tissue samples, (iii) skin lesions, and (iv) tumour xenografts in radiobiology and radiotherapy studies. A relationship between the values of the optical parameters and tissue pathology, disease stage, and treatment response will be established, and quantitative clinical criteria for pathology recognition and treatment response assessment based on these values will be derived. These criteria will enable objective in-vivo early diagnosis and accurate neoplasm removal. The new technology will enable compressive in-vivo 3D lesion assessment in directly or endoscopically accessible organs, and comprehensive label-free assessment of cell-culture and small-animal models of cancer and other diseases. Key words: epithelial cancer; imaging; tissue function,metabolism, physiology; chiral protein; hypoxia; diagnosis

Amount: £374,957
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Surrey

Tackling Histoplasmosis; a neglected disease impacting on equine health and human livelihoods. 25 May 2017

Histoplasmosis is a neglected yet prevalent disease among working equids in sub-Saharan Africa where horses provide a critical source of income and draught power for transport and agriculture to millions of people. There is a lack of evidence for the mechanisms of transmission and persistence of histoplasmosis offering little rationale upon which to base disease control. This novel multidisciplinary study will combine epidemiological, ecological and community engagement approaches to investigate the dynamics of this endemic disease, and will be achieved through an international collaboration across the academic, veterinary and NGO sectors. Phase 1 comprises a prospective multi-centre cohort study, a nested case-control study, and a clinical case-series. Clinical and environmental samples will be collected along with epidemiological data to determine the contribution of environment and host factors to both susceptibility and response to the disease. Clinical samples will be analysed using serological and molecular biological techniques to determine the presence and state of infection and to characterise Histoplasma diversity. Single-cell genome sequencing will be used to define predominant and/or virulent strains. Phase 2 will involve consultation with the community and regional stakeholders to share research findings and develop and disseminate disease prevention advice facilitated by the NGO partners.

Amount: £937,371
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Liverpool