- Total grants
- Total funders
- Total recipients
- Earliest award date
- 10 Apr 2001
- Latest award date
- 30 Sep 2018
- Total GBP grants
- Total GBP awarded
- Largest GBP award
- Smallest GBP award
- Total Non-GBP grants
MA History 30 Jul 2017
My project researches associations between fat bodies and gender in the medical literature of early modern Europe. While modern concerns with increasing rates of obesity are reflected by a growing historical scholarship on this topic, much remains to be examined, especially concerning the link between cultural ideas about fat bodies and the medical understandings of these bodies. The purpose of this research is to assess gendered ideas in early modern medical discussions on obesity. I will do so by examining European medical texts between 1650 and 1750, particularly comparing English medical debates with those occurring in the Netherlands in the same period. The goal of this comparison is to locate and explain differences in the extent to which gendered assumptions about obesity informed medical debates in each country, in different schools of thought, and even between individuals. I will assess the nature and causes of different explanations and treatments of obesity within the context of cultural, as well as medical developments, unique to period, place, and practitioner. I will demonstrate how and why gender played a role in the diagnosis and prescriptions for cures of obesity.
A community approach to accelerate the discovery of the molecular basis of neurodevelopmental disorders 05 Sep 2017
The molecular causes of the majority of inherited neurodevelopmental disorders remains largely poorly understood, presenting an immense healthcare burden worldwide. The cause of such disorders in rural Pakistan typically relates to founder mutations that have accumulated due to historical ancestral population bottlenecks, followed by population expansion. Together with expert clinical input, this enables greatly empowered phenotypical, genetic and functional studies to discover the molecular causes of autosomal recessive diseases that would otherwise elude discovery, benefiting medical science and aiding disease diagnosis globally. This seed proposal will cement new collaborative relationships established by the applicant and develop infrastructure in four Pakistani Research Centres enabling invaluable new opportunities for novel neurodevelopmental disease gene discoveries. These will unravel important new biomolecular developmental processes for future exploration using stem cell and animal models that will be developed alongside this program. This project also provides opportunities to improve local knowledge of the spectrum and causes of inherited neurodevelopmental disease, greatly facilitating development of diagnostic services in Pakistan. By consolidating these collaborative relationships, while further developing the applicant’s skill set and experience, the proposal will lay foundations for long term future molecular studies to enhance scientific knowledge and define new therapeutic avenues for these devastating disorders.
A Healthy Interest: diets, exercise, and ideal bodies in England and Holland, 1650-1800. 08 May 2018
My thesis will analyse diet and exercise advice and practices to investigate attitudes to ‘healthy bodies’ in Dutch and English printed medical literature, physician’s casebooks, patient-physician correspondence, and recipe books between 1650 and 1800. With modern concerns around increasing obesity rates and an ever-growing body of dietary advice in both medical and popular literature, a study of diets and exercise in the past can help us understand where our current ideas and ideals concerning body and health originate. The key goals of this project are to locate the health values and practices that were being promoted at this time; to assess to what extent dietary advice and ideals reached lay society; to analyse to what extent patients followed advice and made dietary and exercise considerations part of their ‘lifestyle’; and to examine attitudes to ‘healthy’ or ‘unhealthy’ bodies and bodily ideals in late seventeenth and eighteenth-century Dutch and English society. Examining manuscript and printed sources in a geographically comparative study will provide a rich and in-depth understanding of contemporary ‘health cultures’ and bodily ideals. In so doing the thesis will analyse how far we can identify the development of a modern ‘health culture’ in this period.
Expanding the capabilities and use of the South West Regional Facility for High-Resolution Electron Cryo-microscopy 07 Dec 2016
State-of-the-art direct electron detectors (DEDs) and new image processing strategies enable electron cryo-microscopy (cryoEM) routinely to achieve near-atomic resolution of biological samples. CryoEM has thus become a primary imaging technique, increasing the need for research institutions to provide cutting-edge cryoEM equipment. The Living Systems Institute (LSI) at the University of Exeter is a brand new interdisciplinary research centre, which will develop strategies to study diseases and their prevention. As part of the GW4 group (also including Bristol, Bath and Cardiff), we seek to develop regional research infrastructure on a scale beyond the capabilities of the single institutions. Within this remit, the Wellcome Trust-funded South West Regional Facility for High-Resolution Electron Cryo-microscopy will be established in Bristol, with a 200kV cutting-edge cryo electron microscope at its core. To support this venture and significantly increase the capabilities of the facility for all users within GW4, we plan to contribute a state-of-the art K3 DED with energy-filter. We also plan to establish an entry-level multiuser cryoEM facility at the LSI, supporting the research needs of local users in order to provide samples for further high-resolution analysis in Bristol and at the Wellcome Trust-funded electron Bio-Imaging Centre (eBIC) at Diamond.
The development of insulin resistance and anabolic resistance during muscle disuse: what is the role of fuel integration? 08 Nov 2017
Skeletal muscle atrophy, which occurs during short-term disuse, is thought to be due to the development of anabolic resistance of protein metabolism and insulin resistance of glucose metabolism, although their cause is currently unknown. The primary research aim of this fellowship is to establish the role of muscle fuel availability and integration in disuse-induced insulin and anabolic resistance. In collaboration with the Medical School, I will perform two randomized, placebo-controlled studies in which young, healthy participants undergo 2 days of forearm immobilisation with placebo, Acipimox (to decrease plasma lipid availability), Formoterol (to stimulate glycolytic flux), or dietary branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) manipulation, to alter substrate availability. I will combine the arteriovenous-venous forearm balance technique, that I have recently established in Exeter, with stable isotope amino acid infusion and repeated forearm muscle biopsies to quantify muscle glucose, fatty acid, and BCAA balance, oxidation, and intermediary metabolism (including muscle protein synthesis), both fasted and during a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic-hyperaminoacidaemic clamp. Two periods of research at the University of Texas Medical Branch will enable me to develop skills in mass spectrometry tracer analyses and develop a network of collaborators in the USA, both crucial for my future career investigating disuse-induced muscle atrophy.
My PhD thesis will be concerned with sick children in England, 1550 to 1700. The chief objectives are fourfold: firstly, to uncover the emotional and physical experiences of the ill child; secondly, to ask whether there existed a concept of 'paediatrics' among parents and physicians - were children thought to require special, separate medical care and treatment that was different for adults? Thirdly, it seeks to evince the emotional response of parents to their sick children; fourthly, and finally, to ascertain whether the prescriptive advice in medical texts was followed in practice. My primary sources will include: personal documents (diaries, correspondence, and autobiographies), medical textbooks, doctors' casebooks, and domestic recipe and account books; these sources will be obtained from the online database Early English Books Online, and from the British and Wellcome libraries. The term 'child' will encompass all human beings from birth to about twenty-one years; the thesis will be subdivided into sections based on different age-ranges. Early modern learned medicine identified stages of childhood, including infanthood (0-7), childhood (7-14) and adolescence (14-21); each age-bracket was vulnerable to specific diseases (Still, 1931). This approximate division explains my decision to interpret childhood in this way.
Title of meeting: Philosophical and social dimensions of microbiology The last decade of microbiological research has seen new investigative approaches and a vast body of genomic data transform theoretical understandings of microbial interaction, evolution and biodiversity. This workshop will explore the philosophical implications of these extraordinary developments within a broader historical context and, in the process, make steps towards constructing a research agenda for future philosophical and social studies of microbiology. The papers and discussions will be structured so that the workshop culminates in a final session designed to initiate ongoing exploration of the ethical, legal and other social issues that arise out of philosophical understandings of microbiology and microbes. Presentations and discussions will address the following themes: - General conceptual issues in microbiology (with a focus on the prokaryote-eukaryote distinction, and symbiosis) - Microbiology, biochemistry and genetics and their merger in the early 1900s - Genomic innovations in microbiology - The microbial world and evolutionary contingency - Cognition, sociobacteriology, and natural genetic engineering in bacteria - Epistemological issues in microbiology (with a focus on alternative biospheres) - The impact of microbiology on the philosophy of biology - Ethical, legal and social issues revealed by philosophical analyses of microbiology Possible future developments (e.g.: in microbial bioremediation)
'Working with Dust: Health , Dust and Diseases in the History of Occupational Health' conference to be held at the University of Exeter on 10th -12th April 2006. 23 Jan 2006
Working with Dust: Health, Dust and Diseases in the History of Occupational Health The Wellcome-funded Centre for Medical History at the University of Exeter is engaged on a set of research initiatives signalled by its Strategic Award. One of the themes established in the Award is the history of work-related illnesses and injuries. In completing the Wellcome project on the history of medical perceptions and treatments for silicosis in the United Kingdom, Melling and Bufton contributed to a network of scholars, including Professor Christopher Sellers of the United States. From this close collaboration emerged the proposal for an international conference which would consolidate this international network and draw together a wide range of research scholars. This year is particularly apposite since a range of research which was begun at the time of the previous Exeter conferences and seminars on the topic (held in 2000-2001) have now come to fruition and it is a valuable point at which to establish a benchmark for an assessment of this work and establish directions for future research. The conference will include the following themes: Testaments and oral history of dusty workplaces. Coal mining: colliery diseases and the struggle for compensation. Asbestos. Silicosis to pneumoconiosis. Tuberculosis and industrial disease. Gender and industrial disease. State responses to respiratory illness at work. International models of dust-induced industrial illness. International Labour Office and the regulation of dusty work. Changing frontiers in the burden of dust-induced diseases: developing countries. The frontier between work and the environment in the incidence of disease.
The performance of medicine : researching the historical writings on the ritual of tarantism. 13 Jul 2008
The project for which this grant is being sought, is for proposed archival research into specific aspects of medical history relating to the phenomenon of tarantism. The grant will allow for detailed examination of documents and sources contained within two libraries, the Wellcome Trust Library, London, and the Bodleian Library, Oxford, both of which hold significant material relating to the historical study of the medical writings concerning tarantism, which date from the 15th Century through to the present. The key goals of this archival research are that it will contribute toward the writing of a monograph, Ritual, Rapture and Remorse: the dance of the spider in Salento, under contract with Peter Lang, which is a study of the history of tarantism through different disciplinary perspectives, and includes discussion of the extensive amount of documentation within the field of the history of medicine. This will make an important contribution to dissemination of these writings, each of which demonstrates the shifts in approaches to the body, medicine and scientific and philosophical paradigms, most particularly in Renaissance and Early Modern Italy, but also moving through to the developments in psychiatric medicine during the 20th Century.
'Plants and Knowledge' conference to be held at the University of Exeter on 9-10 May 2008. 19 Feb 2008
Everybody depends on plants and many non-botanists have extensive knowledge of certain areas. Galen is a case of a doctor who used botanists such as Theophrastus and tested botanical claims for other, medical, purposes. Galen's work has been transmitted in a curious manner that makes him inaccessible (but of known importance) to all but a tiny fraction of the population who read Latin and Greek (in the standard German edition). Guided by this example the conference will seek to explain how and why knowledge about plants and their uses is transferred and not transferred. The key issue is public access to such knowledge. We will range from popular and priestly medicine in Babylon (Geller and Boeck), through the Greek medical authors, to issues of access in the nineteenth to twentyfirst centuries. The medical material from Greece and Babylon (day 1) will be chaired by Professor Geller and Proessor Mark Jackson (Centre for Medical History, Exeter University). Topics to be covered are: Galen on Simples, Galen on Compound medicines, Galen on Hippocrates on barley ptisane, an English version of Galen on Simples, Galen and the Syriac tradition, Dioscorides, The Geoponica, Chelsea Physic Garden, The Plants of the Babylonian tablets. Genesis and the Tree of Knowledge, Unusual uses for plants in ancient Greece, Perfume Plants in Antiquity, The solanum family online, The Jardin des Planets and the Women of Paris, Children and plants : Pokemon and Harry Potter.
MOLECULAR GENETIC STUDIES IN HYPERTENSION, TYPE 2 DIABETES, AND CORONARY HEART DISEASE IN PAKISTAN. 07 Nov 2006
Pakistani subjects have a high burden of hypertension, type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease compared to white Europeans. There is strong evidence that genetic as well as environmental factors contribute to these diseases in Pakistan. Despite recent progress in identifying genes for common diseases in European studies there are few well powered genetic studies in South Asian subjects. Identifying genes for hypertension, type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease in Pakistan is important because it will improve knowledge of aetiology and may provide predictive power. The key goals of this project are to establish a large genetic resource to study hypertension, type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. Approximately 60% of the subjects have already been phenotyped as part of a previous study. The second key goal is to transfer skills in common disease genetics from the UK to Pakistan. Scientists from Karachi will visit the UK where we will test the hypothesis that polymorp hisms established as risk factors from European studies will affect disease risk in Pakistan. This proposal will result in the transfer of skills in common disease genetics from the UK to Pakistan and identify genetic risk factors for three common diseases in Pakistan.
University of Exeter: Master's Degree in the History of Medicine Course title: MA in Medicine, Occupation and Health in Historical Perspectives. This MA is the multi-disciplinary study of the role of modern medicine in the workplace in an international context. It integrates the history of medicine and medical practice with contemporary issues in occupational health. The one year programme is structured in the following way: (a) Historical Skills and Methodology, (b) A core course consisting of two specialist modules in the history of medicine and issues in occupational health. The optional modules include, but not limited to: Medicine and Social Policy in Modern Britain; Population; Disease and Health in Modern Britain; Sociology of Reproduction; The Sociology of Science and Technology; Nineteenth Century Science and Gender. (b) Fieldwork: Students may develop an individual fieldwork module in collaboration with staff. This will enable a student to combine professional and/or personal experience with an intellectual perspective on the historical development of their chosen area. Dissertation: individual topic of 20,000 words, agreed between individual students and the programme director. The course is delivered in Semesters 1 and 2, taken up with taught modules. The focus is on providing both a broad knowledge of issues in medical history and occupational health in the modern world and also the basic training in skills required for conducting research in medical history.
Identifying low frequency and rare genetic variation involved in type 2 diabetes using next generation sequencing data. 24 May 2010
To answer my research question, I will utilize the following datasets: Dataset 1: Whole genome sequence from 1500 Type 2 diabetes patients and 1500 characterised controls at 4 fold coverage. Dataset 2: Targeted sequencing of 50-200 selected genes from 480 young onset diabetes patients and 480 normo-glycaemic controls, at 50 fold coverage. Dataset 3: Variant data from the publicly available 1000 genomes project My project will then proceed in four stages. In Stage 1 I will use NGS data fr om datasets 1-3 to identify low frequency and rare variants in the coding regions of selected candidate genes. In Stage 2 I will annotate these variants including their likely functional effect and genomic context. In Stage 3 I will prioritise variants for follow up using a combination of criteria including nominal association (p<0.05). In Stage 4 I will follow up prioritised rare variants by genotyping in additional samples of up to 50,000 cases and equivalent numbers of controls. I will also t est the impact these variants have on beta-cell function and insulin resistance in well phenotyped non-diabetic cohorts. My fellowship will improve understanding of biological mechanisms involved in diabetes and may lead to stratification of individuals for treatment or preventative measures.
"Human heredity in the twentieth century" to be held at the University of Exeter on 2-4 September 2010 15 Feb 2010
The idea that physical and mental characters can be attributed to discrete hereditary factors or "genes" has profoundly affected our understanding of human nature and society. The perceived social implications of genetic knowledge have, in turn, had a profound effect on the development of scientific methods, concepts, theories and technologies. Modern knowledge about human heredity, however, does not only stem from the discipline of genetics. Various fields such as medicine, anthropology, and psychology have maintained and developed their own ways of analysing and explaining the phenomena of heredity through technologies such as intelligence testing, surveys of fertility, patterns of disease, blood groups and linguistic boundaries. The workshop will produce a much needed and comprehensive picture of the various scientific, medical and political practices that have shaped the notion of human heredity from 1900 to the mid-1970s (when new biotechnologies opened up a new age of human heredity). It will focus on developments that have hitherto attracted little attention in the historiography of human heredity, and which shed new light on the interaction between science and society and on the transfer of knowledge and practices between scientific fields.
A critical study of John Money's contribution to the sexological concept of 'paraphilia' 15 Feb 2010
The project undertakes a critical investigation of the understudied concept of 'paraphilia' in the work of New Zealand-born sexologist, John William Money (1921-2006). I trace Money's debt to the foundational European texts of sexology of the late-nineteenth century that first described the sexual 'perversions' and posed them as a social and moral threat under the umbrella discourse of 'degeneration'. I explore the logic of Money's theorization of abnormal sexual development, and the practices for treating sex offenders that he pioneered at Johns Hopkins University in the 1980s and 1990s. By bringing attention to the importance of Money's work on this subject, the commonplace assumption that twentieth-century sexology is very far removed from the presuppositions and values underlying its nineteenth-century counterpart is called into question. Moreover, the project demonstrates the extent to which the significance of the diagnostic category of 'paraphilia' in twentieth-century Anglo-American sexology has been overlooked. Finally, the project offers a fuller and more accurate picture of a key figure in the history of sexual medicine than is currently available, as most published scholarship on Money focuses uniquely on his contribution to debates about gender identity, notably, his controversial involvement with the 'John/Joan' case in the 1960s.
Environments, expertise and experience: the transmission and boundaries of medical knowledge and practice. 08 May 2008
Our key objective is to expand and sustain a critical mass of researchers exploring three inter-related themes. 1. Environments, bodies and boundaries. Research will focus on the impact of domestic, occupational, and urban environments on medical understandings and patient experiences of disease. Revolving partly around research on stress, this strand will also focus on `sick building syndrome', child health, and the relationship between environmental change and health. 2. Sexual knowled ge, sexual experiences and health. This strand explores theories of sexuality, sexual practice and health from ancient to modern worlds. It encompasses projects on impotence and infertility, bodies, sex and health, and how representations of sexual practices in `other historical contexts have shaped modern debates. 3. Transmission and boundaries of medical knowledge. Much of our research analyses the construction and transmission of medical knowledge across time and space and exchanges betw een expert understandings and lay experiences of disease. We aim to develop these themes into a designated strand that encompasses work on the reception and dissemination of Galen s physiology and research on the cultural history of heredity. Seminars, joint conferences, staff exchange schemes and collaborative research projects will be used to disseminate research findings, strengthen international links, and facilitate comparative research.
Understanding laboratory lives: Developing a collaborative agenda for humanities and social scientific research on laboratory animal welfare. 31 Mar 2014
This proposed research will develop a state of the art review and transdisciplinary and collaborative research agenda for the future of humanities and social science research on laboratory animal welfare. This will be achieved through two workshops (Exeter and London) jointly organised by the named collaborators, who are all active researchers pioneering innovative social science and humanities research on the past and contemporary landscapes of laboratory animal welfare. The research ac tivities aim to further the potential for humanities and social scientific research on laboratory animal welfare to connect to international debates in the scientific and policy community. This will be achieved through: 1) building interdisciplinary and international networks for intellectual exchange between humanities, scientific and social scientific scholars working on laboratory animal welfare; 2) using a collaborative process, with policy-makers, to identify critical research questio ns at the science/social science/policy interface for the future of laboratory animal welfare; 3) publishing a high-profile open-access article reviewing existing humanities and social science research on laboratory animal welfare and defining future research agendas; 4) developing and submitting a further research grant proposal with interdisciplinary and international collaborators on these research agendas.
This is the third of a series of biennial meetings of senior scholars and research students from six major research centres in the philosophy of the life sciences and medicine across Europe. These six centres provide the core funding for this meeting. The present application is a request for additional support to be able to host two international senior speakers and offer a scholarship to one deserving PhD student. The aims of this series are: (1) to acquaint young researchers with recent trends in their own and neighbouring disciplines and allow them to network in an early stage of their career; (2) to facilitate exchange of young researchers among the institutions involved and potentially enhance the institutional research scope; and (3) to create a platform for more senior scientists to develop new programs and projects on a European level.
Institutional Strategic Support Fund 2012/13 17 Oct 2012
The aim of this fund is to support outstanding research within the remit of the Wellcome Trust - biomedical sciences and medical humanities - that will enable the University to strategically advance research in these areas and to leverage further funding from the Wellcome Trust and other funding sources. The scope of this funding is open to all university research staff, across all of the discipline areas, but in particular to: to support outstanding postdoctoral researchers allowing them to generate preliminary data to support independent Fellowship applications; to support early career academics by enabling them to generate preliminary data in support of research grant applications; to support mid-career and senior academics working in Wellcome Trust remit areas wishing to make a transition towards research in the remit of the Wellcome Trust and/or seeking to apply to the Trust for the first time; and to support newly recruited research staff seeking pump priming support for a new activity that will lead to a Wellcome Trust application, with first time applicants to the Trust particularly encouraged. If awarded, there is a commitment from the award holder to carry out the following: To provide the ISSF project team/project manager with regular updates on progress To provide a final report to the ISSF Project Board within two months of completion of the award which will cover the following: how the funds were used; the outcomes of the activity and the extent to which the proposed aims and objectives were achieved; how the funding has led, or will lead, to an application/award to an external funder; a list of publications either in press or out to print To include ISSF Biomedical Hub members involved in the award as authors on any resulting publications unless stated otherwise in the application To acknowledge the ISSF funding in all publications arising as a result of the award by including the following statement - "This work was generously supported by a Wellcome Trust Institutional Strategic Support Award (WT097835MF)" To cost in ISSF Biomedical Hub members involved in the award into related future funding applications