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Results

Therapeutic Commodities: Trade, Transmission and the Material Culture of Global Medicine 10 Nov 2016

Therapeutic commodities – goods considered valuable for the improvement of health – have local as well as global histories. This project aims to understand the history of therapeutic commodities by using a material culture approach, meaning a focus on socio-cultural contexts in which humans assign meanings to commodities, as well as analysis of their materiality: the qualities and meanings assigned to substances, the ways in which substances came into being, including technologies that created, developed and produced the commodity. I propose to view these two as mutually constitutive aspects of a material approach to medicine. Studies of trade and the transmission of medical knowledge tend to reduce therapeutic commodities either to unchanging goods that move in line with supply and demand, or to characteristic features representing separate systems of knowledge. Instead, this project seeks to bring together scholars who work on therapeutic commodities across time (from the early modern to the contemporary) and space (Eurasia, South Asia, Africa and the Americas), and in different academic environments, to challenge existing narratives about the circulation of therapeutic commodities. The ultimate aim is to write a new history of therapeutic commodities, mapping their global socio-political and cultural lives across time and space.

Amount: £47,264
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Counterterrorism in the NHS: Prevent Duty Safeguarding and the New 'Pathology' of Radicalisation 10 Nov 2016

This project explores the delivery of counter-terrorism policy through NHS England since the 2011 Prevent Review. Despite the historical novelty of enacting counter-radicalisation through UK healthcare, there is no academic study of how the new 'Prevent Duty' has been implemented or its effects. The key goals of the pilot study are to analyse: 1) what kinds of counter-terrorism expertise have been created in the NHS; 2) how the Prevent safeguarding duty is implemented vis-a-vis medical ethics, and 3) how counter-terrorism safeguarding is situated in histories of medico-security collaboration. Three methodological streams are used to deliver the research goals. First, academic literature reviews within fields of critical criminology and medical humanities will situate Prevent's positioning of political violence as a healthcare safeguarding issue. While the practice of counter-terrorism through healthcare is novel, the history of medicine is replete with examples whereby social deviance has been identifed as pathological and treatable - with varying ethical results. Second, expert interviews will be conducted with the safeguarding teams at NHS Trusts across the Midlands to identify the structures and official discourses through which counter-terrorism is enacted. Third, focus groups will be held with NHS staff to explore the everyday implementation of the Prevent Duty.

Amount: £43,570
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Impact of chronic endometritis on endometrial stem cell population 27 Apr 2017

Recurrent miscarriage (RM) has been linked to stem cell deficiency, heightened cellular senescence and impaired decidualization (differentiation) of the endometrium, although the cause of stem cell deficiency is unknown. I hypothesize that low-grade endometritis, defined by the presence of CD138-positive plasma cells in the superficial endometrium, may cause endometrial mesenchymal stem cell (eMSC) depletion. To test this hypothesis, I will establish clonogenic assay from endometrial stromal cells purified from CD138-positive and -negative mid-luteal endometrial biopsies from RM patients. Furthermore, the responsiveness of clonal endometrial MSCs to decidualization signals will be assessed.

Amount: £0
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Puffery or Policy: E-cigarettes and the role of the media in the implementation of medical and public health advice 18 Jun 2018

My project focuses on the e-cigarette industry to explore the role of the media on public opinion. Both print press and audio-visual media strongly influence the socio-cultural values attached to addictive substances. They portray the relationship between the supplying industries and public health; frame both promotional advertising and health warnings; and finally, provide the multiple-platforms of information (and addiction) transmission. The public can be overwhelmed by this wealth and profusion of contradictory claims, undermining genuine expert recommendations. Research can help to overcome this. A chronological evaluation of textual and audio-visual media, tracing the shifting relationship and negotiations between the many stakeholders (public health, Cancer Research UK, the media, e-cigarette industry and consumers), will demonstrate the changing socio-cultural associations of e-cigarettes. Having established this background, interviews with these stakeholders will explore the advertising and health recommendations of both health policy and the e-cigarette industry across different media platforms -- exploring which advice is trusted and followed. This project creates a transferable framework and approach to build positive relationships with emerging industries promoting new products not easily categorised as ‘healthy’ or ‘unhealthy’. This research also assesses the most effective and appropriate media platforms to broadcast health advice in the future.

Amount: £7,625
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

MA in the History of Medicine 11 Jul 2018

The MA in the History of Medicine aims to introduce students to the advanced study of the history of medicine, and to equip them with the conceptual and practical skills to carry out independent historical research in this field. The students on the MA are encouraged to engage with a range of concepts, and to place developments within medical theory and practice in a broad social and cultural framework. The Term One core module ‘Themes and Methods in Medical History’ is designed to introduce students to some of the main historiographical approaches and debates within the history of medicine from the early modern period to the twenty-first century. The Term Two core module, 'Matters of Life and Death', addresses three sets of topics in the history of medicine (broadly construed) selected by its students from a menu of possible options. Possible topics range across the expertise of teaching and research staff in the Centre for the History of Medicine, and of our Associates in the wider University context. Students actively engage with a wide range of sources available to the historian of medicine (e.g. medical texts, practice records, diaries, case records, public health reports and health propaganda, and visual sources).

Amount: £83,671
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

The cataloguing and preservation of the British Association of Social Workers (BASW) archive (1970-1995). 21 Nov 2007

In this application the relevance of this archive to the history of medicine has been more clearly communicated, to emphasise the importance of the papers and the context of the collection to the discipline. Specifically, since the previous application the Modern Record Centre (MRC) has acquired the CALM software for archive cataloguing. The MRC is thus enabled to produce its lists and catalogues more easily, eliminating the requirement for specific training in EAD (Encoded Archival Description) which was incorporated within the previous bid. 'Dr Mathew Thomson is no longer named as co-applicant, but the links with the Centre for the History of Medicine are strong, and they have collaborated closely on the application, and in planning the dissemination of information on the collection to the history of medicine community and associated activities. A letter of support is also appended from the Director of the Centre for the History of Medicine and from Dr Jonathan Toms, a Wellcome Trustfunded researcher.

Amount: £69,661
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Value in People Award. 17 Oct 2007

Not available

Amount: £200,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

International symposium on poetry and medicine to be held at Warwick University on 10 April 2010 13 Apr 2010

The aim of the symposium is to consider academic approaches to medicine as a historical and current theme in literary poetry, poetry by and for patients and health professionals and in poetry as therapy. Medicine is to be considered in its broadest sense. In particular the Symposium aims to draw together interests in poetry and medicine in the writings of poets, effects of illness on writings of poets, and poetry as therapy for patients and interest as well as a training tool for health professionals. Awards for the new annual International Hippocrates Prize for Poetry and Medicine will be announced during the Symposium. This new Award attracted over 1600 entries from 28 countries from health professionals, patients and members of the public.

Amount: £5,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

"The making of early modern scientific knowledge: Objects, spaces, practices and epistemologies" to be held at the University of Warwick on 2-3 July 2010 30 Nov 2009

This two-day symposium is the first UK-based attempt to bring together researchers working on knowledge production processes in Europe 1500-1800. The meeting has three main goals. Firstly, it will assess current 'state of play' in scholarship by fostering discussion amongst those working in varied aspects of the field. We aim to assemble an international group of scholars in various stages of their careers from a number of different disciplines including the history of medicine and science, global history and geography. Secondly, we will consider and assess a variety of early modern knowledge making processes, from informal experimentation to reading and writing natural philosophy, and the impact of these practices upon the development of medical and scientific knowledge. We will situate these processes within histories of early modern intellectual networks, histories of commerce, trade and consumption, histories of craft and artisanal skills and studies of experience and expertise. We will also focus upon broader issues such as the role played by gender, race and colonization upon knowledge production and dissemination. Finally, in terms of output, the meeting will generate a series of podcasts and a possible edited volume of essays.

Amount: £3,690
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Value in People Award. 29 Mar 2010

Not available

Amount: £200,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Open Access Award. 16 Sep 2008

Not available

Amount: £20,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

The potential impact of vaccination on RSV and other respiratory virus pneumonia in the developing country setting. 07 Feb 2008

Predicting the potential impact of introducing a vaccine into a community requires an in-depth understanding of the interactions between the pathogen and host. Key elements of this association are the mechanism by which the virus spreads between individuals and the nature of the immune response to infection. In the case of RSV, an antigenically variable virus, individuals are repeatedly infected throughout life, and it is the nature of this partial immunity that is of central concern in our stud ies. In particular, we wish to elucidate the role of the partially immune in constraining virus spread, but, also in maintenance of transmission, especially to na ve individuals most at risk of disease, and to establish the role of individual strain specific immunity to population dynamics. We argue also that the environment of other respiratory pathogens may influence the single pathogen:host ecology. We plan an inter-related series of studies, in which immunological, epidemiological, and th eoretical investigations will feed into transmission dynamics models of RSV and other respiratory viruses, by which to assess the impact of vaccine intervention. Our goals are to define optimal vaccine strategies for disease prevention, and provide a suitable framework for their practical evaluation.

Amount: £1,849,593
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Using a permeabilized cell system and cell physiology to understand cytokinetic actomyosin ring constriction (part of programme Cytokinetic actomyosin ring: from understanding the ultrastructure and assembly to 10 Jul 2013

Cell division in many eukaryotes requires an actomyosin-based contractile ring, whose constriction bisects a mother cell into two. Although this F-actinand myosin II motor-containing ring has been described for >40 years, we know very little about how it constricts and generates force. Our goals are to understand the mechanism of actomyosin ring constriction and its regulation inthe cell cycle. We will use Schizosaccharomyces pombe for our studies, since it divides using an actomyosin-based co ntractile ring, and is amenable to themethods of genetics, biochemistry, and cytology. We have developed a permeabilized cell system in which addition of adenosine triphosphate leads tocomplete contraction of intact actomyosin rings. We will use this system to 1.estimate the force generated by the constricting ring and 2. perform contractility assays on permeabilized cells generated from mutants in actomyosin ring proteins, to identify ring components important for its constriction. We wil l use proteomic approaches to uncover the molecular differences between actomyosin rings before and during constriction and to understand the cell cycle regulation of ring constriction. We will use cross-linking amino acid mutagenesis of actin to identify changes in actin filaments during cytokinesis and employ a new approach to identify protein conformational changes during cytokinesis. Finally, we will investigate if overlapping mechanisms regulate ring constriction in vivo. The combination of in vitro contractility, in vivo studies, and screens based on emerging technologies should provide tremendous insight into actomyosin ring constriction mechanisms and can lead the field in new directions.

Amount: £2,357,233
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Poster Power: Picturing Health and Medicine in the 20th Century 25 May 2016

This project would contribute to the history of medicine galleries at the Science Museum and has the potential to form part of the new Medicine Galleries, launching in 2019. It investigates the material and visual culture of the public health poster as both object and vehicle of knowledge. It examines the role of visual imagery within health education accounting for images as important forms of communication central to understanding the historical development of disease risk in the twentieth century. From vaccination, diet and dentistry to smoking, hygiene and AIDS, health education has been shaped by its visualisations. This project traces the rise of the public health poster in the 20th Century and links this to wider developments in medical equipment, intervention and the place of the public. It seeks to engage non-academic audiences with the history of medicine by examining how health concerns have been visualised and presented to the public historically. Through the inclusion of a public events element, this project will show how these posters can be used as tools of engagement to examine the intertwining of the visual and the medical throughout the twentieth century. Keywords: poster, public health, health education, visual culture

Amount: £13,080
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Consortium for Advanced Research Training in Africa+ (CARTA+) 05 May 2015

CARTA+ aims to develop a critical mass of researchers working in research-supportive environments to improve public and population health in Africa. CARTA+ has identified three strategic thrusts based on the past achievements of CARTA. It will: 1) Maintain a pipeline of high-quality doctoral candidates and graduates to build a critical mass of multidisciplinary researchers across CARTA+ African partner-institutions. These fellows will be recruited from these institutions,and registered at African partner universities. 2) Institutionalise aspects of CARTA to strengthen and sustain PhD training, build research-supportive environments, and accelerate high-quality research activity (supervision, mentorship, faculty visits, improved administration) inAfrican institutions; and 3) Secure the future and foster the career paths of high-achieving CARTA graduates as productive researchers, grooming them as future research leaders in Africa, through post-doctoral positions, re-entry grants, an active alumni network, proposal development workshops, and mentorship and collaboration opportunities through pilot research projects. Together, these three strategies will produce a critical mass of researchers and research leaders who will create, promote and lead active research and training programmes at their universities. As change agents within their institutions, they create a feedback mechanism to guarantee sustainability of CARTA+ strategies (Figure 1). Background Since 2008, CARTA has established itself as a viable platform to build an African academy poised to lead world-class, multidisciplinary research to improve public and population health (Rand Europe, 2012, 2013, 2014 ). CARTA+ builds on CARTA's mutually-reinforcing two-pronged strategy to develop individual research capacity and leadership while concurrently transforming institutional research cultures and organisational systems within which these individuals operate. This approach creates the much-needed conducive environments to retain active researchers at African universities who, themselves, can support further capacity development for research and lead institutional change (Figure 1). How CARTA+ responds to regional health needs The Post-2015 Development Agenda emphasises the urgency of addressing the social determinants of health. The colliding burden of infectious and non-communicable diseases places poorly-functioning African health systems under enormous strain. To effectively address the major health, health systemsand development issues facing African countries and to produce robust evidence, a multidisciplinary approach to public and population health research is essential. CARTA's tested and successful multidisciplinary training model is a proven vehicle for responding to these needs and constitutes CARTA+'s strategic advantage. Higher education needs The aspirations of many African countries is to expand the numbers of PhD-level scientists and researchers. The African Union's Agenda 2063 underscores the need to "elevate Africa's role in global research, technology development and transfer, innovation and knowledge production". Yet the African higher education sector is characterised by a number of challenges including: low levels of funding, weak research culture and productivity, inadequate systems to support research, and a primary focus on undergraduate training. The CARTA+ approach of training university staff and supporting themto become productive researchers, research leaders and change agents in their universities, and to lead high-quality research and research training respondsto these challenges and positions the African higher education sector to meet these aspirations.

Amount: £16,805
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Violence, Mental Health and the British School Child: from theory to practice in an era of war, peace and social change, 1944-1980. 12 May 2015

Focusing on primary and secondary state education in England from the Education Act of 1944 to 1980, the project will examine thought and practice on the relationship between violence and children. This will entail, in the first instance, exploring the connections between theory and practice and the ways in which psychological ideas were mediated by the range of actors who commented on, and were active in debates about, the problem of violence in schools. Secondly, beginning its time-frame with the Second World War, the research offers a valuable opportunity to assess whether the conflict affected thinking about children as well as providing scope for examining the effect of the new tripartite education system and its post-war extension of secondary education to all children. Finally, the research will consider the differences in how a range of professionals thought about this subject, particularly psychologists and teachers, but also social workers, parents, and popular commentators. It will trace differences in practice according to the age of children, gender, class and ethnicity, and explore the effect of ideas about moral decline associated with the permissive society (evident in alarm during the 1950s about the existence of a 'blackboard jungle').

Amount: £83,593
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Open access award 2012/13. 17 Sep 2012

Not available

Amount: £30,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Understanding and re-engineering adenovirus late gene expression: controlling the gatekeeper to productive infection. 09 Mar 2011

Two proteins encoded within the adenovirus major late transcription unit (MLTU; a large gene that encodes the viral structural proteins), L4-22K and L4-33K, are not themselves part of virus particles but are required for production of particle proteins from the MLTU. Moreover, although the L4-22K and L4-33K genes lie within the MLTU, they are initially expressed from an independent promoter, which is crucial for infection to progress to the production of progeny. We therefore propose here to re- engineer this promoter, to prevent its activation during infection and place it under artificial control. A vector carrying this altered promoter will produce structural proteins and progeny particles in cell culture in the presence of inducer but will be unable to do either of these things when used in vivo. The specific objectives of the proposal are: To characterise the adenovirus L4 promoter, its key cis-acting elements and their response to transcription factors. To engineer the aden ovirus L4 promoter to eliminate its response to known activators and to make it inducible in appropriate cells in culture: To construct and validate an adenovirus E1-deleted vector containing the engineered promoter.

Amount: £229,258
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick