- Total grants
- Total funders
- Total recipients
- Earliest award date
- 22 Nov 2005
- Latest award date
- 17 Oct 2019
- Total GBP grants
- Total GBP awarded
- Largest GBP award
- Smallest GBP award
- Total Non-GBP grants
Experimental Stories: Val McDermid 30 Sep 2015
An fatal antibiotic-resistant infection sweeps through an intensive pig-rearing unit. Within days, it’s jumped the species barrier into the wild bird population and soon it’s jumped again into cattle. A highly infectious pathogen, it swiftly spreads through the animal food chain and into domestic pets. Food shortages loom; but even more frightening is the prospect of a species jump into humans.
The proposed activity to be carried out during the tenure of a Small Research Grant consists of data collection in the newly opened Medact Archive at the Wellcome Library in London. For this purpose, I will travel to the Wellcome Library in London where I will spend five full days in the Medact Archive to look at materials relating especially to one of Medact's two predecessor organizations (the Medical Campaign againt Nuclear Weapons). This research will play a pivotal role in the completion of my current project on transnational medical activism against nuclear weapons in Britain in the Cold War.
Medical botany in the 19th and early 20th Century: Berthold Carl Seemann (1825-1871)and Melville William Hilton-Simpson (1881-1938). 29 Aug 2014
Visit of Archives in GB, in particular Kew Archives, London, Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain, London, Pitt-Rivers-Museum, Oxford. Investigations into the inheritance of Seemann and Hilton-Simpson, screening of letters and documents regarding reports on medicinal virtues and ethnopharmacological uses of plants collected, primarily by botanical interest.
T. brucei is a small parasite that causes African trypanisomiasis, commonly known as sleeping sickness, in humans and nagana in cattle in Africa. It has life cycle stages in both the mammalian host and the tsetse fly vector and makes several morphological and biochemical changes when migrating between the two. The mechanisms and control of cell proliferation and differentiation is essential to the life cycle of the parasite and thus understanding the details of these processes is important for the discovery of new drug targets to combat this disease. The genome of T. brucei and other related parasites have been sequenced and many biochemical and genetic tools are available to enable molecular dissection of the genes involved in cell division and differentiation. Previous studies of the structural mechanics of cell division have provided us with some understanding of the temporal and spatial organisation of the cell organelle and cytoskeletal structures . However, much more needs to be understood about the three-dimensional spatial organisation of the cytoskeletal structures and how co-ordination of assembly and cytokinesis is performed in order to better understand the phenotypes presented by the molecular dissection experiments. During my 10 week project I used scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunofluorescence microscopy, and video microscopy to gain more insight into cytoskeletal organisation during cell division, and to compare the processes in the procyclic and the bloodstream forms of the parasite. SEM and video microscopy revealed important differences between the procyclic and bloodstream forms during cell division regarding attachment and growth of the new flagellum, the degree of staggering of the daughter cells during cleavage furrow ingression and the nature of the cytoplasmic connection between the two daughter cells, present just before cell abscission. Fluorescent labelling of ?-tubulin and TEM images provided some evidence for the presence of microtubules in the cytoplasmic connection in the procyclic form, although more evidence is needed.
Peamont Sanatorium Archives (including the Women's National Health Association of Ireland Archives)- Preservation and Access Project 13 Jul 2010
The project involves arranging, packing and cataloguing the archives of Peamount Sanatorium, the most important sanatorium and tuberculosis hospital in Ireland, which functioned between 1912 and 2004, and the archives of the Women's National Health Association of Ireland, founded in 1907 by Lady Aberdeen, wife of the Irish Lord Lieutenant, to promote public health. The Women's National Health Association was instrumental in founding Peamount Sanatorium. Both collections are presently stored on the Peamount Hospital site which continues to operate as a medical facility. The archives of the sanatorium, consisting of some 800 archival boxes, commence in 1912 and represent the largest surviving collection of records of a tuberculosis hospital in Ireland. The collection comprises several hundred bound volumes, 40,000 patient index cards and 30,000 patient files. The archives of the Women's National Health Association of Ireland, consisting of some 100 archival boxes, commence in 1905 and relate to the wide range of health initiatives with which it was involved. The bulk of these records are presently stored in conditions that are not conducive to long term preservation or research access, and require safeguarding by being placed in archival custody. The National Archives seeks funding to permit the retention of the services of a qualified archivist for two years. The project would be given general oversight and direction by a project team from the National Archives, to which the archives will be transferred. It is intended that there will be an initial records conservation survey by a conservator and the collection would receive appropriate conservation treatment at a later stage.
More Humanity: Christine Borland's translation of empathy in medical anatomy and clinical practice and its incorporation in visual art. 14 Jun 2010
First, the proposed research will examine artist Christine Borland's methodology, focusing on notable artworks made during the last fifteen years. Second, it will analyse how contemporary artworks reference medical history and clinical practices towards providing a renewed direction to advanced artistic practice. The key goals are to record an in-depth interview with Christine Borland, with the production of an interview transcript, and to publish the research findings of the project in a peer review journal.
'Chemistry and pharmacy in the colonial world' to be held at Oxford Brookes University 13th May 2010 18 Jan 2010
Intellectual historians cannot ignore the role played by alchemical practices (experiments, theories, circulation of books and manuscripts, constitution of networks covering the entire European continent and several early colonial settlements) in the agenda of Early Modern learning. Equally, studies published over the last twenty years have much contributed to the appreciation of the role of chemistry in the constitution of research practices in science, technology and medicine, and to the key social and intellectual role played by practitioners of chemistry during the 18th and 19th centuries. Finally, business historians or historians of innovation (including therapeutic innovation) can hardly escape confronting the complex interactions between university and industrial research on a continental and intercontinental level throughout the 20th century. The main goal of the joint Oxford History of Chemistry Seminar series, of which this session is to be a part, is therefore to explore and assert the centrality of the history of chemistry to a variety of research areas dealing with the social, intellectual and economic history of Europe (and beyond) over the last five centuries.
History of Medicine Resarch Student Conference to be held at the Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine at UCL from 19-20 June 2008. 27 May 2008
History of Medicine Research Student Conference
The 1918 influenza pandemic represents the worst outbreak of infectious disease in Britain in modern times. Although the virus swept the world in three waves between March 1918 and April 1919, in Britain the majority of the estimated 228,000 fatalities occurred in the autumn of 1918. In London alone deaths at the peak of the epidemic were 55.5 per 1,000- the highest since the 1849 cholera epidemic. Yet in the capital as in other great cities and towns throughout Britain, there was none of the panic that had accompanied earlier 19th century outbreaks of infectious disease at the heart of urban populations. Instead, the British response to the 'Spanish Lady' as the pandemic strain of flu was familiarly known was remarkably sanguine. As The Times commented at the height of the pandemic: 'Never since the Black Death has such a plague swept over the face of the world, [and] never, perhaps, has a plague been more stoically accepted.' The apparent absence of marked social responses to the 1918 influenza is a phenomenon much remarked on in the literature of the pandemic, as is the apparent paradox that despite the widespread morbidity and high mortality the pandemic had little apparent impact on public institutions and left few traces in public memory. However, to date no one has explored the deeper cultural 'narratives' that informed and conditioned these responses. Was Britain really a more stoical and robust nation in 1918, or was the absence of medical and other social responses a reflection of the particular social and political conditions that prevailed in Britain during the First World War and then medical nosologies and cultural perceptions of influenza? And if the 1918 pandemic was 'overshadowed,' as one writer puts it, by the war and the peace that followed the Armistice, what explains the similarly muted response to the Russian flu pandemic of the early 1890's, a disease outbreak that coincided with a long period of peace and stability in Britain? In this project I aim to show that, contrary to previous studies, both the 1918 and the 1889-92 Russian flu pandemic were the objects of much deeper public concern and anxiety than has previously been acknowledged and that the morbidity of prominent members of British society, coupled with the high mortality, occasioned widespread 'dread' and in some cases alarm. However, in 1918 at least, government departments and public institutions actively suppressed these concerns for the sake of the war effort and the maintenance of national morale.
The project is collaboration with Prof. Vivian Nutton to examine the philosophical and astrological background of the pseudo-Galenic De Spermate (existing in Latin translation, dated to the thirteen and fourteen centuries). Our specific goals are to evaluate the philosophical and astrological background of the treatise and in particular its Neoplatonic influence; to establish possible Neoplatonic sources; to examine the dialogue between medicine, philosophy, and astrology in the treatise; to assess the attitude toward astrology in the treatise in the context of the traditional antithetical relationship between medicine and astrology and philosophy in Late Antiquity.
De-N-acetylation of cell wall chitin/pepitdoglycan as a defence mechanism against the mammalian immune system - structures, mechanisma and inhibitor development. 19 Jul 2006
One of the primary defences of the innate mammalian immune system against microbial pathogens is secretion of cell wall-targeted lytic glycoside hydrolases. Some of these enzymes, lysozymes (degrading peptidoglycan) and chitinases (degrading chitin), heavily depend on the presence of the N-acetyl side chains on N-acetylglucosamine for substrate recognition. Recent research has suggested that bacteria, fungi and microsporidia possess carbohydrate esterases ("family 4 carbohydrate esterases", CE-4) that partially de-N-acetylate cell wall peptidoglycan and chitin, thereby conferring microbial resistance against these mammalian glycoside hydrolases. Bacterial knockout studies of CE-4 esterases have shown that deletion of these genes results in hypersensitivity to lysozyme and dramatic reduction in virulence in a mouse model. This proposal aims to study the structure and molecular mechanism of action of microbial CE-4 esterases, screen small molecule libraries for inhibitors and synthesize potential leads using a combination of the resulting hits and rational design. These leads will then be tested in bacterial, fungal and microsporidian cultures in terms of resistance against lysozymes/chitinases and ultimately evaluated (through collaborations) in appropriate mouse models. Specifically, we will study the peptidoglycan deacetylases of the Streptococcus pneumoniae and the oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans, fungal chitin deacetylases from the pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus and the microsporidian chitin deacetylase from the pathogen Encephalitozoon cuniculi.