- Total grants
- Total funders
- Total recipients
- Earliest award date
- 27 Apr 2000
- Latest award date
- 30 Sep 2020
- Total GBP grants
- Total GBP awarded
- Largest GBP award
- Smallest GBP award
- Total Non-GBP grants
COVID-19 is a global threat to health, with many countries reporting extended outbreaks. To date 9 countries in Africa have recorded infection and it seems imminent that East Africa will have introductions and onward transmission. The SARS-CoV-2 virus (the aetiological agent of COVID-19) spreads rapidly (R0~2, serial interval about 1 week), and hence control will be difficult. National plans for dealing with this public health emergency will benefit from predictions of the expected rate, distribution and extent of spread in countries throughout the region, and on the likely impact and feasibility of isolation and contact tracing interventions. We will support the emergency preparations through bespoke modelling, incorporating known demographic population structure, age-related contact patterns and existing mobile phone population movement data. In Uganda and Kenya we will collect epidemiological, genomic and behavioural data through health facility surveillance, household follow-up and contact studies to quantify uncertainties of SARS-CoV-2 virus epidemiology and contact patterns in well and unwell individuals. Results from the study will be rapidly communicated to the relevant authorities, and modelling code and analysis, and data including sequences, placed in the public domain in near real-time. This project could have lasting impact on the role of research in policy decisions.
Kinesin-microtubule systems transport intracellular cargo in eukaryotes and are essential for life. Recently, we discovered that dynamic microtubules can respond to kinesin by changing their conformation, lattice spacing, curvature and stability, and conversely that kinesin stepping can sense and respond to conformational shifts in the microtubule lattice. These insights fundamentally redraw our picture of the function of kinesin-microtubule transport systems. I now propose to dissect the mechanical mechanisms by which kinesins and microtubules instruct one another, using protein engineering combined with single molecule optical trapping at unprecedented resolution. Working with both wild-type and mutant kinesins and tubulins, principally from S. pombe, we will determine the structural requirements for different microtubule lattices to control kinesin substeps, backsteps and bidirectionality; and the converse requirements for kinesins to manipulate the conformation and fate of microtubules. Our experiments will reveal how tubulins communicate mechanically with one another and with kinesins. Illuminating the molecular mechanisms of active mechanical feedback in kinesin-microtubule systems will transform understanding of the transport machinery and open the way to improved chemical biological manipulation of its in vivo function.
In recent decades, the 'safety' of patients and staff has become a pressing concern in the British National Health Service (NHS). However, little is understood about how and why these ideas and practices evolved historically, and were spread throughout the NHS. My project, Hazardous Hospitals, addresses this lacuna by exploring ideas and practices around 'safety' in NHS general hospitals from 1960-2012. It analyses the development, promotion and institutionalisation of 'safety cultures': ideas, values and behaviours around safety, as well as the systems and processes which support and sustain them. My outputs will be a major monograph exploring the history and meaning of 'safety' in the NHS, an article in History & Policy, as well as 2-3 journal articles exploring sub-topics, such as occupational health. I ask: 1. What defines the ‘safety culture’ of NHS hospitals? How can these ‘safety cultures’ vary? 2. How was safety in hospitals assessed, and in what ways did it come to the attention of NHS managers and policymakers after 1960? 3. How did NHS managers promote safety among their staff? 4. What role did groups such as patient organisations, safety campaigners and the press play in depicting, challenging and promoting reform of hospital ‘safety cultures’?
For much of the twentieth century, children in Britain interacted with speech therapists in hospitals, private practice and the local school medical services. Emerging from the end of the eighteenth century and forming a recognised College in 1945, speech therapists became a medically-allied profession over the course of the period between 1900 and 2000. To date, however, there has been no dedicated historiographical study of speech therapy provision – either from the perspective of the therapists or their young patients. The proposed research undertaken during this grant will provide an opportunity to scope a variety of manuscript, published and oral history sources that may be used to tell the story of this profession and those who used it. By allowing a preliminary engagement with the evidence base, this initial scoping will also contribute to the development of a sound theoretical and analytic framework for a project that has the capacity to speak to on-going debates across several historiographies as well as concerns within the medical humanities - addressing the nature of children’s experiences (as ‘patients’ or recipients of therapy), the socio-cultural construction of disability, and the porous boundaries between medicine and the world of arts and theatre.
Warwick-Wellcome Trust translational Partnership 30 Sep 2019
<p><br> The University of Warwick will use the partnership to invest in fellowships and projects that<br> focus on impact in the science of early life, human tissue models of disease, and disease<br> control and prevention. The partnership will also enable the provision of supporting expertise<br> in impact delivery, and strengthen links with partner institutions in both industry and our local<br> hospital network.</p>
Developing future research agendas on the socioethical impact of genomics through interdisciplinary live data-sharing 31 Aug 2019
<p style="margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px">This project will develop a forum for interdisciplinary collaborations and collective imagination on the socioethical implications of genomics, using live data-sharing as a spring board to theoretical and conceptual enhancement, and future research agenda development.</p> <p style="margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px">The project will bring together academics, researchers, clinicians, policy-makers and doctoral students working on, or alongside, the socioethical implications of genomics, for four focused workshops over 24 months, informed by the input of a patient/public advisory group. These workshops will provide otherwise non-existent opportunities for collaboration through the presentation and collective curation of current research data and emergent analyses, presented along axes of core cross-cutting themes (e.g. risk/genetic responsibility). The workshops will highlight areas of interdisciplinary resonance for further development, with the ultimate goal of enhancing the theoretical robustness and transferability of underlying concepts, and illuminating pathways for future research. </p> <p style="margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px">It is anticipated that the emergent network of researchers/academics/clinicians/policy-makers interested in socioethical genomics will continue beyond the lifetime of the project, providing an open space for sustained interdisciplinary data-sharing and collaborative analysis, to ultimately enhance the quality and robustness of research in this area, as well as highlighting new directions for the translation of research into policy and practice. </p>
<p style="margin-left: 0cm; margin-right: 0cm">What made vegetarianism the dominant trope for understanding India’s diet, given that the majority of Indians are meat-eaters? I address this puzzle through an investigation of popular literature on diet and nutrition published in India between 1900 and 1960. Given the pre-eminence of Western Indian—particularly Marathi—publishing on dietetics, I focus on this region’s publications as a case study to gain insight into the rise and consolidation of the idea of India as ‘naturally’ vegetarian. In particular, I investigate how debates on what constituted a scientific diet for India both informed and were informed by contemporary social and political debates about something apparently unrelated: the Indian caste system.</p> <p style="margin-left: 0cm; margin-right: 0cm">I will ask: to what degree were Indian dietetics’ re-framing of ‘scientific’ and ‘natural’ food practices instrumental in sustaining a caste-based social order? And to what extent did meat, milk, fasting and eating a ‘balanced diet’ come to function as wider discursive technologies of cultural governance?</p> <p style="margin-left: 0cm; margin-right: 0cm">By situating Marathi dietary modernity within the broader context of the global rise of ‘nutrition’, I will explore if, and how, the emergence of nutritionism in India simultaneously made the everyday act of eating into an assertion of social power.</p>
<p>In humans, pregnancy with the wrong number of chromosomes (aneuploidy) is common and the risk increases with maternal age, rising from ~2% for women under the age of 25, to around 35% for women over 40. Aneuploidy is a leading cause of early miscarriage, whilst affected full term births exhibit severe medical problems. Most aneuploidies arise from chromosome segregation errors that occur during the meiotic divisions of the oocyte or early mitotic divisions of the embryo. The next challenges are to determine the mechanisms of chromosome segregation in oocytes, to understand how high fidelity is ensured and to identify the origin of aneuploidies found in early human embryos. Work on model systems has identified adaptations to the kinetochore which direct and monitor specialized pathways of chromosome segregation during meiosis. However, the extent to which similar mechanisms function in human oocytes is unknown. Indeed, our recent work revealed unexpected properties of kinetochores in human oocytes, potentially contributing to the high error rate. We will perform a detailed examination of kinetochore behaviour in human oocytes and early embryos to gain the first insights into chromosome segregation at the start of life and uncover potential sources of error.</p>
Volunteering Matters 06 Nov 2014
Piloting Engage and Transform, a scheme to break down cultural barriers and develop a long-term partnership of mutual benefit between public and social sector organisations.
<p><em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</em> (<em>Mtb</em>) is the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB) and is now the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent in the world, killing more people world-wide than HIV and malaria. With the escalation of drug-resistant TB infections we urgently need to develop novel strategies and interventions to control the growing TB global epidemic. To enable this, we need a more detailed understanding of the fundamental biology of <em>Mtb</em>. <em>Mtb</em> is an unusual pathogen that has the exceptional ability to survive within the human host for decades. However the energy sources that <em>Mtb</em> uses within this nutrient-poor environment and the mechanisms involved in their transport are poorly understood. The overarching aim of this project is to use a multidisciplinary approach combining chemistry, biochemistry and microbiology to determine i) which carbohydrates are (re)used by <em>Mtb</em>, ii) how they are (re)used and iii) the molecular mechanisms involved in these processes. This project will provide key insights into carbohydrate uptake/recycling and metabolism by <em>Mtb</em> and assign physiological function to the proteins involved. Altogether, these results will generate important mechanistic insights into the survival of this global pathogen and validate whether these pathways represent therapeutic/diagnostic targets.<br> </p>
<p>To divide and multiply, bacteria must remodel their cell envelope to facilitate physical separation of daughter cells. FtsEX is a key player in coordinating cell division events on either side of the bacterial inner membrane. FtsEX belongs to the same protein superfamily as the MacB efflux pump and the LolCDE lipoprotein trafficking complex, collectively termed Type VII ABC transporters. Current models for FtsEX activity suggest long range conformational changes in FtsEX regulate periplasmic enzymes responsible for peptidoglycan hydrolysis while maintaining cytoplasmic interaction with the septal Z-ring. Structural and functional data are essential to understand how FtsEX works and to assess viability of inhibition using chemical compounds. This project seeks to characterise the interaction of FtsEX with its binding partners, the role of ATP binding and hydrolysis, and to obtain structural data using X-ray crystallography. The project builds on published work on Type VII ABC transporters and is supported by preliminary data showing FtsEX has been crystallised. The Seed Award will presage future applications to the Wellcome Trust, MRC or Leverhulme Trust to further explore the structure and function of bacterial cell division proteins as targets for future antibiotic development.</p>
MA in the History of Medicine 11 Jul 2018
<p>The MA in the History of Medicine aims to introduce students to the advanced study of the history of medicine, and to equip them with the conceptual and practical skills to carry out independent historical research in this field. The students on the MA are encouraged to engage with a range of concepts, and to place developments within medical theory and practice in a broad social and cultural framework. The Term One core module ‘Themes and Methods in Medical History’ is designed to introduce students to some of the main historiographical approaches and debates within the history of medicine from the early modern period to the twenty-first century. The Term Two core module, 'Matters of Life and Death', addresses three sets of topics in the history of medicine (broadly construed) selected by its students from a menu of possible options. Possible topics range across the expertise of teaching and research staff in the Centre for the History of Medicine, and of our Associates in the wider University context. Students actively engage with a wide range of sources available to the historian of medicine (e.g. medical texts, practice records, diaries, case records, public health reports and health propaganda, and visual sources).</p>
<p>Physical contact with dirt in the natural world poses a risk of infection. But does our concern to be hygienic limit our familiarity with, and therefore our respect for, the outdoor environment? Do we as a result persist with practices that threaten both our health and that of the planet? Working with Warwickshire Wildlife Trust (WkWT), based at their Brandon Nature Reserve, I will investigate how concerns about hygiene affect interaction between humans and the natural world. I will evaluate practices in this regard at Brandon, to establish how far this location can be held up as a model in terms of the ways institutions safeguard members of the public whilst having minimal impact on the environment. I will interview WkWT’s partner organizations such as schools, and report on how they minimize risks whilst promoting respect for nature. I will talk to staff and visitors at WkWT about balancing hygiene with a love of nature. Building on these conversations, I will formulate a questionnaire with which to approach the wider public. Working with WkWT’s schools team, I will devise a range of curriculum- linked workshops exploring how animals keep clean in the wild in comparison with human practice.</p>
Puffery or Policy: E-cigarettes and the role of the media in the implementation of medical and public health advice 18 Jun 2018
<p>My project focuses on the e-cigarette industry to explore the role of the media on public opinion.<br> <br> Both print press and audio-visual media strongly influence the socio-cultural values attached to addictive substances. They portray the relationship between the supplying industries and public health; frame both promotional advertising and health warnings; and finally, provide the multiple-platforms of information (and addiction) transmission. The public can be overwhelmed by this wealth and profusion of contradictory claims, undermining genuine expert recommendations. Research can help to overcome this.<br> <br> A chronological evaluation of textual and audio-visual media, tracing the shifting relationship and negotiations between the many stakeholders (public health, Cancer Research UK, the media, e-cigarette industry and consumers), will demonstrate the changing socio-cultural associations of e-cigarettes. Having established this background, interviews with these stakeholders will explore the advertising and health recommendations of both health policy and the e-cigarette industry across different media platforms -- exploring which advice is trusted and followed.<br> <br> This project creates a transferable framework and approach to build positive relationships with emerging industries promoting new products not easily categorised as ‘healthy’ or ‘unhealthy’. This research also assesses the most effective and appropriate media platforms to broadcast health advice in the future.</p>