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Recipients:
2nd Mildenhall Guides
University of Oxford
Award Year:
2018

Results

How do people get multi-drug resistant tuberculosis? 05 Dec 2018

<p style="margin-left: 0cm; margin-right: 0cm">Recent data suggests that most isoniazid resistant strains have been circulating for decades.&nbsp;The global diagnostic focus on rifampicin resistance has meant that isoniazid mono-resistant strains are systematically being treated with first-line therapy. With MDR-TB incidence rising despite overall TB incidence falling, the concern is that we are selecting for rifampicin resistance. The alternative explanation, that MDR-TB is transmitting more successfully, seems unlikely, but possible.</p> <p style="margin-left: 0cm; margin-right: 0cm"><strong>The hypothesis I will test is that most isoniazid resistance is acquired through transmission whereas most rifampicin resistance evolves&nbsp;<em>de novo</em>in patients with undiagnosed, pre-existing isoniazid resistance.</strong></p> <p style="margin-left: 0cm; margin-right: 0cm">I will investigate the following&nbsp;<strong>research questions </strong>in Vietnam:</p> <p style="margin-left: 0cm; margin-right: 0cm">(i) What is the proportion of transmitted versus newly evolved MDR-TB?&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin-left: 0cm; margin-right: 0cm">(ii) What is the prevalence of isoniazid resistance among patients never previously exposed to the drug, and what proportion of patients with unsuccessful treatment outcomes evolve isoniazid resistance?</p> <p style="margin-left: 0cm; margin-right: 0cm">(iii) What is the risk of evolving rifampicin resistance by treating isoniazid resistant strains with first-line drugs? What proportion of patients who evolve rifampicin resistance after exposure to first-line drugs also evolved isoniazid resistance?</p> <p style="margin-left: 0cm; margin-right: 0cm">(iv) Do host genotype and variable anti-tuberculosis drug pharmacokinetics contribute to evolving drug resistance?&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin-left: 0cm; margin-right: 0cm">The findings will inform policy on diagnostics, treatment protocols and disease control.</p>

Amount: £1,526,714
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Gonococcal vaccine initiative 27 Nov 2018

<p><em>Neisseria gonorrhoeae</em> (<em>Ng</em>), a leading cause of STI and co-factor for HIV transmission, has developed extensive antimicrobial resistance. Therefore innovative measures to combat <em>Ng </em>are urgently required.</p> <p>While vaccines have been remarkably effective for preventing bacterial infection, there has been scant progress towards <em>Ng</em> vaccines. However,&nbsp;recent advances provide the first prospects for success in decades.</p> <p>We will exploit these advances and our expertise <strong>to validate effective antigens for inclusion in a gonococcal vaccine through five related aims.</strong> We will :-</p> <p>1) identify <em>Ng</em> antigens through a clinical trial of an outer membrane vesicle (OMV)-containing vaccine from <em>Neisseria meningitidis</em> as an immunological probe in an <em>Ng-</em>exposed population,</p> <p>2) define the conservation and distribution of <em>Ng</em> antigens by interrogating our genomic database of <em>Ng,</em></p> <p>3) generate lead candidates (exploiting their atomic structures and variation) and produce engineered OMVs which will be characterised by state-of-the-art proteomics,</p> <p>4) evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of our candidates in the murine model of <em>Ng</em> infection, and examine cellular and serological responses, and</p> <p>5)&nbsp;refine and combine antigens to deliver pre-clinical validation for effective<em> Ng </em>vaccines, and derive correlates of protection for this important pathogen.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p>

Amount: £1,062,556
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

What’s in a memory? Spatiotemporal dynamics in strongly coupled recurrent neuronal networks. 27 Nov 2018

<p>Current models of memory postulate that impressions of the past are saved in synapses onto so-called engrams, groups of excitatory neurons that co-activate when a memory is recalled. However, many memories, like choreographed movements or spoken words, entail complex activation patterns that necessitate a high level of temporal control. Engram models cannot support such temporal activation patterns because they behave in a binary fashion, with neurons persistently firing at high or low rates.</p> <p>In a recent breakthrough we showed that rich temporal patterns of activity can be achieved when excitatory and inhibitory neurons are strongly coupled and finely tuned. In a departure from engram models, the entire network engages in &ldquo;spatiotemporal&rdquo; patterns of activity. Building on these results, we will investigate strongly coupled networks in which memory becomes a network-wide, interactive phenomenon, affected by network structure, sensory input and contextual state. We will build computer simulations of strongly coupled rate networks and sequentially add more layers of complexity, until we can investigate how synaptic plasticity allows the formation of new memories. My work will lead to a new theory of memory, creating biologically relevant models that can be compared to &mdash; and informed by &mdash; experimental approaches.</p>

Amount: £1,665,855
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Organising knowledge for flexible behaviour in the prefrontal-hippocampal circuitry 27 Nov 2018

<p>Humans and animals can find new solutions to existing problems, and generalise existing knowledge to new situations. This flexibility relies on internal models of the relationships and causes that govern our world. Despite the importance of world-models to a wide class of behaviours and thus likely relevance to psychiatry, little is known about how they are represented in the brain. Recent evidence suggests rapid progress can be made by comparison to the field of spatial cognition. Specific neuronal mechanisms are shared between spatial and non-spatial model-based behaviours, and new theories suggest links between spatial and non-spatial knowledge. We will study and manipulate hippocampal, entorhinal and prefrontal activity in rodents performing model-based tasks bridging spatial and non-spatial domains. Using unusually rich&nbsp;but precisely specified tasks, we will&nbsp;characterise&nbsp;neuronal representations of world models quantitatively, enabling&nbsp;formal mathematical description. We will therefore provide new data describing how internal-models are represented in neuronal activity in service of flexible behaviour, and how these representations generalise knowledge across different tasks. These data will be crucial for developing theories of how our brains represent and generalise knowledge for flexible behaviour, and will lay essential groundwork for studies of how these representations go awry in clinical populations.</p>

Amount: £2,276,345
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Molecular basis of lipid traffic at interorganelle contact sites 27 Nov 2018

<p>One unsolved mystery of cell biology is how lipids, made in the endoplasmic reticulum, travel to other cellular membranes. This question, originally deemed solved by the discovery of vesicular traffic, was recently spotlighted by the discovery of membrane contact sites (MCS), at which lipid transport proteins (LTP) accumulate. LTPs solubilize and transport lipids between two membranes in vitro. The role of LTPs in vivo is, however, more mysterious, because lipid exchange appears to be a highly redundant process, challenging standard genetic screens.&nbsp; I hypothesize that redundancy allows lipid rerouting to allow proper lipid fluxes in different conditions. But this hypothesis is challenged by another limitation: no method allows to measure lipid fluxes inside the cell.</p> <p>I propose to develop two methods to circumvent these problems.</p> <p>First is a synthetic-biology approach: bacterial proteins are targeted to different organelles in a eukaryotic cell to modify lipids within these organelles and assess lipid fluxes between compartments. Second is a transposon approach that allows identifying genes that become essential when other genes are missing.</p> <p>Combining these approach will yield unprecedented insight into this unsolved issue. Because lipids are often dysregulated, our research will shed light on the biology of many diseases.</p>

Amount: £2,267,367
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Molecular basis of lipid traffic at interorganelle contact sites 27 Nov 2018

<p>One unsolved mystery of cell biology is how lipids, made in the endoplasmic reticulum, travel to other cellular membranes. This question, originally deemed solved by the discovery of vesicular traffic, was recently spotlighted by the discovery of membrane contact sites (MCS), at which lipid transport proteins (LTP) accumulate. LTPs solubilize and transport lipids between two membranes in vitro. The role of LTPs in vivo is, however, more mysterious, because lipid exchange appears to be a highly redundant process, challenging standard genetic screens.&nbsp; I hypothesize that redundancy allows lipid rerouting to allow proper lipid fluxes in different conditions. But this hypothesis is challenged by another limitation: no method allows to measure lipid fluxes inside the cell.</p> <p>I propose to develop two methods to circumvent these problems.</p> <p>First is a synthetic-biology approach: bacterial proteins are targeted to different organelles in a eukaryotic cell to modify lipids within these organelles and assess lipid fluxes between compartments. Second is a transposon approach that allows identifying genes that become essential when other genes are missing.</p> <p>Combining these approach will yield unprecedented insight into this unsolved issue. Because lipids are often dysregulated, our research will shed light on the biology of many diseases.</p>

Amount: £120,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Human in silico clinical trials in post myocardial infarction: mechanistic investigations into phenotypic electromechanical variability and response to treatment 27 Nov 2018

<p style="margin-left: 0cm; margin-right: 0cm">The population of patients with ventricular damage following survival of myocardial infarction (MI) is rising, owing to the increased prevalence of coronary artery disease and improvements in treatment. Post-MI patients suffer from permanent myocardial damage, and this increases risk of sudden death and cardiac mechanical dysfunction, with potential progression to heart failure. Arrhythmic risk stratification is conducted using ventricular ejection fraction, a mechanical marker. However, a significant number of sudden deaths occur in patients with relatively preserved ejection fraction, and patients with low ejection fraction often do not experience serious arrhythmic events.&nbsp;In this Fellowship, I propose to unravel key mechanisms explaining phenotypic variability in post-MI, focusing on the interplay between electrophysiological and mechanical ventricular abnormalities, and their modulation by pharmacological interventions. I propose a Systems Biomedicine approach based on human ventricular computer modelling and simulation of coupled mechanical and electrophysiological function, in iteration with experimental and clinical studies. We will construct populations of thousands of human ventricular electromechanical post-MI models from ionic to whole-organ dynamics, calibrated and validated using rich experimental and clinical datasets. We will conduct in silico clinical trials to dissect key factors determining arrhythmic risk and degree of mechanical dysfunction post-MI, and effects of pharmacological interventions.</p>

Amount: £1,634,247
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Neural mechanisms of endogenous pain control 27 Nov 2018

<p>Pain plays a vital role in self-protection and injury avoidance, and my research to date has outlined a core learning and decision-making framework, based on reinforcement learning theory, that shows how this is achieved in the brain. Recently, I have shown that this controls not only actions, but also the intensity of perceived pain itself (endogenous pain control) - an effect related to predicted uncertainty. This leads to the underlying hypothesis that pain is&nbsp;actively tuned by the value of its information&nbsp;- a precise&nbsp;metric that derives from an estimate of the extra benefit to survival achieved through learning. This leads to a series of testable questions: i) how and where is this information computed, ii) is it opioid-dependent, iii) how is it maintained over time, iv) how and at what level does it control pain representations, v) and can it be targeted to reduce pain. The proposed research describes the series of behavioural and neuroimaging experiments that will answer these questions, aiming to provide a comprehensive circuit level account of the major endogenous pain control process in the brain. Ultimately, the results aim to provide a basis for developing precision interventions for chronic pain.</p>

Amount: £1,592,306
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Impact of malaria elimination on immunity and risk of malaria rebound in Myanmar 21 Nov 2018

<p>The emergence and spread of ACT resistant&nbsp;falciparum malaria ,and the discovery that there were substantial reservoirs of subpatent parasites in populations residing at low transmission area has led to calls for radical interventions to eliminate the disease from the Greater Mekong SubRegion. Several pilot studies of mass drug administration (MDA) have now taken place, including two in Myanmar. With adequate population coverage MDA leads to rapid reductions in malaria incidence. It is hoped that these reductions will be sustained by networks of village health workers who provide&nbsp;early malaria diagnosis and treatment to symptomatic cases. However submicroscopic malaria (undetectable by conventional diagnostic tools) could be a substantial source of resurgent malaria and undermine the success of MDA. Defining the probability of malaria resurgence relies on knowledge of the immune status of a population overtime.</p> <p>I plan&nbsp;to study&nbsp;longitudinal changes in malaria antibody responses in individuals residing in villages where MDA was implemented along the Thai-Myanmar border,&nbsp;&nbsp;and see if they can predict&nbsp;reintroduction of&nbsp;submicroscopic malaria&nbsp; infection. Using high-throughput ELISA, I will measure antibodies to <em>P. falciparum</em> and <em>vivax</em> antigens&nbsp;to evaluate whether there is any change in antibody level which could predict&nbsp;submicroscopic (or symptomatic) malaria infection.</p>

Amount: £256,067
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Evaluating the impact of a Lao language mobile phone antimicrobial use guideline application on antimicrobial prescribing in Laos 21 Nov 2018

<p style="margin-left: 0cm; margin-right: 0cm">Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a Lao major public health concern. We will evaluate whether Lao-language antimicrobial prescribing guidelines mobile phone application (app), will improve antimicrobial prescribing in in- and outpatients across Laos.</p> <p style="margin-left: 0cm; margin-right: 0cm">Stepped wedge randomized controlled trial in six central/provincial hospitals will be performed. The intervention will be the guidelines mobile app. Hospital pairs will be randomly allocated to start the intervention (every eight months) until all have received the intervention. This will give 24 months for both control and intervention groups. Control period will start eight&nbsp;months before intervention. Outcome will be the changes in proportion of prescribing consistent with guidelines and the cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Point prevalence survey (PPS) on in- and outpatients antimicrobial usage will be performed every 4 months throughout the trial to collect prescribing data and hospital cost data. Hospitals will receive a training of guidelines handbooks usage at the control starts, training on the app usage at the intervention starts, PPS feedback and focus group discussion.</p> <p>AMR in Laos remains less severe than elsewhere in Asia, this simple technology may help reduce further worsening. This trial would have a significant impact in Laos, and inform policy globally, by improving prescribing and reducing AMR.</p>

Amount: £241,946
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Genetic control of cell fate decisions in the developing mouse embryo 27 Nov 2018

<p>Understanding the logic of transcriptional networks that control temporally and spatially correct patterns of gene expression required to establish cell identity is the central challenge in developmental biology.&nbsp;&nbsp;My research has provided fundamental insights into regulatory events during axis patterning and cell lineage specification in the developing mouse embryo. A consistent theme is that a handful of so-termed &ldquo;master regulators&rdquo; govern the transcriptional networks that coordinately regulate cell type specific target gene expression in diverse tissue contexts. The proposed experiments are interconnected by the cross-cutting question: how do the master transcription factors Eomes, a T-box family member&nbsp;&nbsp;and the zinc finger transcriptional repressor Blimp1/Prdm1 control cell fate decisions?&nbsp;&nbsp;The first goal of my proposal is to define the underlying transcriptional networks and time window(s) when Eomes-dependent progenitors of the node, midline and DE become lineage restricted during gastrulation.&nbsp;&nbsp;We also aim to characterize Eomes requirements during specification of the hemogenic endothelium giving rise to the first wave of primitive blood. Secondly we will further characterize Blimp1 functional contributions, define upstream signalling pathways governing Blimp1 tissue-specific expression and identify its key downstream transcriptional targets in trophoblast sub-populations and decidual cells at the maternal-fetal interface.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p>

Amount: £3,991,376
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Epidemiology of Tungiasis in Kenya 31 Oct 2018

<p>Tungiasis is an extremely Neglected Tropical Disease and&nbsp; has received little attention from researchers, granting bodies, and government Departments of Health. It is caused by the sand flea, <em>Tunga penetrans</em>, the female of which burrows into the epidermis, mostly of the feet, where it grows 2000 fold in 7 days, inducing severe inflammation, immense pain and itching. Chronic re-infection leads to severe morbidity. Although it is known to occur mostly in children under 15 years in marginalized, resource poor communities in the Caribbean, South America and Sub-Saharan Africa, not a single country knows its national prevalence, nor impact on its population. I am proposing to conduct the first ever national prevalence survey in Kenya using a cross-sectional, randomized, stratified cluster design of 10,950 students in primary schools. The survey will be repeated in the dry and wet seasons to investigate the seasonality of transmission. A sub-sample of infected and uninfected students will be selected to determine the impact tungiasis has on the quality of life, cognitive development and educational achievement. Interviews with teachers and students will investigate possible risk factors for severe disease. The goal is to provide information to mobilize resources and guide policy development for control programs.</p>

Amount: £725,959
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Understanding the relationship between apnoeas and brain function in premature infants 17 Oct 2018

<p>Apnoea of prematurity is a common problem in neonatal care, affecting all preterm infants born before 29 weeks&rsquo; gestation. These potentially life-threatening events are associated with pronounced physiological instability, reduced cerebral oxygenation, and long-term consequences including reduced cognitive ability in childhood. However, it is unclear how these frequent intermittent episodes of hypoxia affect brain activity, and whether this alters brain development. The aim of this Fellowship is to understand the complex interplay between brain function and apnoeas in preterm infants. I will establish the effects of apnoeas on brain activity, considering how this is altered by the degree of physiological instability. I will identify biomarkers of apnoea to create a probabilistic model of the risk of apnoea so that early interventions can be provided. By conducting detailed longitudinal recordings of physiology from birth, and neurophysiological recordings weekly, I will investigate whether episodes of apnoea can alter the trajectory of brain development and whether this affects cognitive ability at 2 years of age. Gaining a better mechanistic understanding of the pathophysiology of apnoea is essential to improve treatment options, and could ultimately lead to better neurological outcome in prematurely-born children.</p>

Amount: £841,963
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Circuit Mechanisms of Learning and Decision Making 17 Oct 2018

<p>Decision making concerns every aspect of our lives. Despite substantial progress in understanding the brain regions involved in learning and decision making, the neuronal circuits that govern choice behaviour have remained elusive. This proposal aims at studying precise neuronal circuits underlying learning and decision making. We will focus on frontostriatal neuronal circuits, and how neuromodulators can shape the activity of these circuits during decision making. Our research will take the following complementary directions: A) We will examine defined frontostriatal circuits during a novel decision paradigm that requires integration of perceptual and reward signals in order to investigate the role distinct frontostriatal circuits play in choice behaviour. B) We will focus on dopamine neurons and dopamine recipient structures and examine specialised roles of distinct dopaminergic circuits in learning. C) We will establish how decision uncertainty influences learning, and how dopaminergic circuits regulate learning in uncertain environments. Our group will utilize and develop behavioural, computational, large-scale electrophysiological and imaging tools to study genetically- and anatomically-defined neuronal circuits in behaving mice. These studies will result in a quantitative circuit-level understanding of complex choice behaviour, and will ultimately provide insights into the pathophysiology of diseases compromising cognition.</p>

Amount: £1,178,460
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Open Research: Thailand Major Overseas Programme 2015 - 2020 15 Nov 2018

<p style="margin-left: 0cm; margin-right: 0cm">This application is led by Phaik Yeong Cheah, the head of Bioethics &amp; Engagement and co-led by Naomi Waithira, the head of Data Management and supported by Nicholas Day, the Director of the Programme.&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin-left: 0cm; margin-right: 0cm">Upon successful completion of the activity, we would have achieved the following:</p> <p style="margin-left: 0cm; margin-right: 0cm">1). Created materials for 3-day face-to-face &ldquo;Short course on data sharing policy: data management, data governance and data ethics&rdquo;. This course will be ready to be delivered to research groups when requested. The proposed modules are as follows:</p> <ol> <li>Introduction and course objectives</li> <li>Data Sharing requirements from funders and journals</li> <li>Data management: a pre-requisite of data sharing (e.g. data dictionaries, CDISC)</li> <li>Legal and ethical aspects of data sharing (potential benefits and harms, consent models)</li> <li>Principles of data re-use (data attribution, citation, data sharing agreements, how to apply for a dataset)</li> <li>Elements of clinical research set-up (protocol development, information sheets, quality control)</li> <li>Technical and IT infrastructure (storage, backup, security, de-identification)</li> <li>Analytic infrastructure and meta-data</li> <li>Data repositories (types of repositories, how to make your data visible)</li> <li>Data sharing plan</li> <li>Data sharing policy and data governance (application procedures, types of governance, data access committees)</li> <li>Costing data sharing (human resources, legal costs, data management &ndash;investment and cost per dataset shared)</li> </ol> <p>2)&nbsp;Created a&nbsp;short online training course on Globalhealthtrials&nbsp;(https://globalhealthtrainingcentre.tghn.org/elearning/short-courses/). We have had preliminary discussions with the Training Manager for Globalhealthtrials, Liam Boggs.&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin-left: 0cm; margin-right: 0cm">3) A data-sharing toolkit with templates of documents needed to operationalize a data sharing policy.</p> <p style="margin-left: 0cm; margin-right: 0cm">4)&nbsp;A core group of of trainers for the face-to-face training&nbsp;</p>

Amount: £49,257
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Planning meeting for Lancet Commission on Diagnosis 30 Sep 2018

<p>The Lancet Commission on Diagnosis</p> <p>Phase 1 - Planning Meeting</p> <p>Following the publication of The&nbsp;Lancet Series on Pathology in Low and Middle Income &nbsp;countries in March, the Lancet asked me&nbsp;to lead a Lancet Commisison on Diagnosis (Pathology and Laboratory Medicine and Imaging). &nbsp;</p> <p>There will be two phases. &nbsp;The first will be a 1.5 day face-to-face meeting of a&nbsp;small interim executive group ( see other participants)&nbsp;to&nbsp;plan&nbsp;the first full meeting of the&nbsp;Commission. Phase II will be the&nbsp;rest of the three year Commission.</p> <p>&nbsp;The main tasks of Phase I will be;</p> <ol> <li>Identify/invite possible Commissioners ( around 20) of international stature with geographic diversity,&nbsp;expertise in the different&nbsp;disciplines,&nbsp;policy making,&nbsp;health systems development, technological&nbsp;innovation and education.</li> <li>Decide&nbsp;aims/objectives and agenda for the first full Commission meeting.</li> <li>Select the site&nbsp;and start the process of&nbsp;booking facitlities, arranging&nbsp;travel, etc.</li> </ol> <p>We wish to hold the Phase I&nbsp;Planning Meeting&nbsp;in mid October, probably&nbsp;in London. &nbsp;We estimate the&nbsp;costs as approximately &pound;8000.</p>

Amount: £8,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Generating collective solutions to reduce unnecessary antibiotic use in Vietnam 23 Aug 2018

<p>Antibiotic resistance in Vietnam is amongst the highest in the world, driven by high levels of antibiotic use for human and animal health. However, community knowledge and understanding about the role and proper use of antibiotics is poor. There are few examples of public engagement around appropriate antibiotic use in low and middle income countries, and there is a huge need to improve public understanding.</p> <p>We hope to encourage community-wide change in the way people use antibiotics for treating common human and animal health problems, and how health-workers prescribe and use antibiotics in hospitals. We will train activators in participatory action research methods, and they will form groups in communities and hospitals. They will guide groups through a four-phase action cycle covering: 1. Understanding the problem of antibiotic resistance; 2. Planning and implementing strategies to tackle inappropriate antibiotic use; 3. Monitoring strategies and generating evidence; 4. Evaluating strategies and planning what to do next. We will evaluate the impact of these action groups on knowledge and behaviour through a mixture of qualitative and quantitative methods &ndash; household and hospital surveys, patient record reviews, and in-depth interviews. We will engage local researchers and policymakers through formative discussions and dissemination meetings.</p>

Amount: £257,270
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford
Amount: £11,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Expanding the Inventory Records and Online Profile of Early Modern Medical Books at the Science Museum 18 Jun 2018

<p>The short-term goal of my six-month project is to create a new inventory of the Science Museum&rsquo;s 158 pre-1800 medical books which would contain more up-to-date, detailed information about the contents, physical format and publication circumstances of the predominantly Latin and English codices. I also intend to explore and document links between the books and the museum&rsquo;s large collection of medical objects.</p> <p>My project will also contribute to the long-term goal of making the books more accessible by the museum&rsquo;s online search platforms. Consequently, part of my project may involve developing contextual materials to accompany the books, such as more in-depth, accessible information about the authors, the broader concepts they are engaging with, and their place within the history of medicine. I would also be keen, if possible, to increase the online presence of these books by writing a short, informal and engaging article aimed at the general public for the Science Museum Blog, or a more formal article on the process of cataloguing them for the Science Museum Group Journal.<br> &nbsp;</p>

Amount: £13,005
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Returning research results: a Northern European Research Network 27 Jun 2018

<p>The generation of (clinically significant) research results in biobanking and other research activities raises questions about return of these findings, such as: should researchers return this information to participants, and if so, what, when and how should it be returned? While some bioethicists argue that researchers have a duty to return some clinically significant results, in practice this rarely occurs. A number of biobanks and cohort studies are currently considering returning a limited number of results to participants while others are engaging in&nbsp; selective (genotype and phenotype driven) recruitment practices, which may indirectly reveal&nbsp; health information&nbsp;to the selected participants. We are applying for funding to create a network of Northern European researchers who are interested in the ethical and practical issues raised by returning results and selective recruitment practices. The network will meet four times over a two year period to debate these issues and provide practical and ethical solutions to the challenges generated by the return of results. In addition to network meetings, we will run an international symposium, coedit a special issue of a journal on this topic and generate a larger grant application to undertake normative and empirical research on the return of results. &nbsp;</p>

Amount: £29,975
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford