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Funders:
Paul Hamlyn Foundation
The Wellcome Trust
Recipients:
University College London
Amounts:
£500 - £1,000

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Results

UCL - Neuroscience 30 Sep 2016

Not available

Amount: £133,252
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College London

University College London/Birkbeck Interdisciplinary Programme in Structural, Computational and Chemical Biology 30 Sep 2016

<p>University College London/Birkbeck Interdisciplinary Programme in Structural, Computational and Chemical Biology</p>

Amount: £133,252
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College London

University College London/Birkbeck Interdisciplinary Programme in Structural, Computational and Chemical Biology 30 Sep 2016

<p>University College London/Birkbeck Interdisciplinary Programme in Structural, Computational and Chemical Biology</p>

Amount: £133,252
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College London

UCL - Neuroscience 30 Sep 2016

Not available

Amount: £133,252
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College London

University College London/Birkbeck Interdisciplinary Programme in Structural, Computational and Chemical Biology 30 Sep 2016

<p>University College London/Birkbeck Interdisciplinary Programme in Structural, Computational and Chemical Biology</p>

Amount: £133,252
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College London

University College London/Birkbeck Interdisciplinary Programme in Structural, Computational and Chemical Biology 30 Sep 2016

<p>University College London/Birkbeck Interdisciplinary Programme in Structural, Computational and Chemical Biology</p>

Amount: £133,252
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College London

University College London/Birkbeck Interdisciplinary Programme in Structural, Computational and Chemical Biology 30 Sep 2016

<p>University College London/Birkbeck Interdisciplinary Programme in Structural, Computational and Chemical Biology</p>

Amount: £133,252
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College London

A Symposium on Enhancing Engagement, Co-production, and Collaborative Meaning-Making in Qualitative Health Research 30 Jun 2016

<p>Traditional "lone researcher" models of qualitative research have shifted to include more collaborative ways of researching, with research participants and other stakeholders viewed as partners in the co-production of knowledge. As well as working alongside &ldquo;lay researchers&rdquo;, qualitative researchers increasingly work in teams with colleagues unfamiliar with qualitative methods. This is largely driven by calls to engage the public in the production of knowledge and penetrate borders between disciplines. As a result, research is assumed to become more relevant to users&rsquo; needs, ethical, and broadly applicable, and is key to requirements of funding bodies and the Research Excellence Framework. However, such collaboration is complex and creates challenges for qualitative researchers.</p> <p>We will explore these issues in a one-day symposium hosted by University College London (UCL), and attended by 150 UK and international delegates. The symposium will provide a platform to develop critical perspectives on:</p> <ul> <li> <p>How collaborative relationships are established and embedded, and particularly how qualitative researchers are positioned in multidisciplinary teams;</p> </li> </ul> <ul> <li> <p>How research designs, data interpretation and reporting are negotiated and enacted;</p> </li> </ul> <ul> <li> <p>The extent to which &ldquo;lay researchers&rdquo; offer the views and experiences of groups they represent and how marginalised groups are accommodated.</p> </li> </ul> <p>Keywords: qualitative research, health, collaboration, engagement, symposium</p>

Amount: £5,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College London

Neuroscience 30 Sep 2016

Not available

Amount: £133,252
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College London

UCL - Neuroscience 30 Sep 2016

Not available

Amount: £133,252
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College London

UCL - Neuroscience 30 Sep 2016

Not available

Amount: £133,252
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College London

Loneliness in severe mental illness: impact on relapse 29 Jun 2016

<p>Loneliness is the distressing subjective feeling one&rsquo;s social relationships do not meet one&rsquo;s social needs. Its adverse impact in physical health and mortality is established. I will investigate its impact on relapse in acute psychiatric crises, and its potential mediating role between neighbourhood social deprivation and relapse.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Objectives</strong></p> <p>1)&nbsp;&nbsp; Test hypothesis that loneliness is associated with:</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; a. increased relapse rate at twelve months follow-up (<em>primary hypothesis</em>)</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; b. reduced time to relapse</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; c.increased service use and cost</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>2)&nbsp;&nbsp; Test if loneliness is associated with <em>neighbourhood</em>-level deprivation and social isolation</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Test if loneliness <em>mediates</em> any association between neighbourhood-level deprivation and relapse</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>3) Discovery replication: second acute psychiatric care cohort</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong></p> <p>Analyse data from multicentre cohort (UCL &lsquo;CORE&rsquo;) study of acute psychiatric patients with serious mental illness. Validate results in different cohort.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>I will use logistic regression, with adjustment for relevant confounders/modifiers, to test the hypotheses.&nbsp; I will use survival analysis, &nbsp;(Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox hazard ratios) for &lsquo;time-to-relapse,&rsquo; and structural equation modeling to investigate whether loneliness mediates any relationship between deprivation and relapse.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Key goals</strong></p> <p>Establishing how loneliness affects outcomes should inform the development of future loneliness interventions. These may reduce relapse, and incorporate both individual and area-level elements.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p>

Amount: £236,225
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College London

Understanding within-patient Mycobacterium tuberculosis genetic diversity to prevent drug-resistance 29 Jun 2016

<p>Tuberculosis, caused by <em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</em> (<em>M.tb</em>), is a major public health problem. Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) cases are increasing, creating a significant barrier to disease control. DR-TB is difficult to diagnose and treatment often takes years. <em>M.tb</em> was traditionally thought to be genetically homogenous within the human host, but deep whole genome sequencing (WGS) data have revealed evidence of within-host genetic heterogeneity (GH), particularly in drug-resistance genes. Changing GH patterns over time can cause acquired drug-resistance (ADR). However, how and where in the host GH arises, or how important it is for ADR is not known.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>I hypothesise that GH represents isolated<em> M.tb </em>subpopulations in separate lung lesions within a patient, and that development of GH is related to local pathology or drug penetration. I will investigate this by WGS of <em>M.tb</em> extracted from resected human lung tissue, and comparing GH to pathology type and local drug concentrations.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>To evaluate whether GH causes ADR, I will follow patients with newly diagnosed MDR-TB and perform WGS of sequential sputum samples over 6 months for WGS. I will evaluate if ADR is related to baseline GH. Understanding the role of GH in ADR could help develop prevention strategies.</p>

Amount: £380,125
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College London

Understanding cellular organisation: from archaea to eukaryotes 05 Jul 2016

<p>We know surprisingly little about the basic logic, topology or origins of eukaryotic cell architecture even though such an understanding is fundamental to most biomedical research.&nbsp; Until recently, the proteins responsible for shaping eukaryotic cells (including Actin/Tubulin/coatamers/ESCRTIII) were thought to be unique to eukaryotes. This changed with the discovery of close homologues in TACK/Loki-family archaea. Despite the important part played by these proteins during eukaryogenesis,&nbsp;we know little about their functions in the context of archaea. To determine how these cytoskeletal systems with origins in archaea contributed to the emergence of internal compartments that define eukaryotes, our team will use metagenomic sampling and phylogenomics to trace their evolutionary history, and a combination of approaches, including live super-resolution microscopy and electron tomography to carry out a comparative analysis of their ultrastructure, dynamics and function in both archaea and eukaryotes.&nbsp;Ultimately, we expect this evolutionary cell biological analysis to make a start towards an understanding of archaeal cell biology, to reveal the likely path of eukaryogenesis, and to reveal underlying principles of eukaryotic cell biology that so far have eluded us. In doing so, we expect this fundamental research to have a signficant impact in the future on human health and disease.</p>

Amount: £1,122,019
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College London

Why do Norovirus pandemics occur and how can we control them? 05 Jul 2016

<p>Noroviruses cause annual epidemics of gastrointestinal infection resulting in significant ill-health and disruption to health services. Frequent genetic mutation causing drift of epidemic strains and recombination leads to worldwide spread of pandemic strains. Approximately 3 million cases/annum occur in the UK with health-care costs exceeding &pound;100M<sup>1</sup>.&nbsp; The advent of new vaccines against two genotypes is encouraging. However, ignorance about the drivers of norovirus strain evolution and spread is a barrier to effective vaccine design and deployment.&nbsp;&nbsp; This multidisciplinary consortium will&nbsp; investigate, through integrated studies,&nbsp;host and pathogen factors that lead to epidemic and pandemic norovirus spread and affect disease severity. Our &nbsp;international team has expertise in norovirus genome sequencing, phylogenetic analysis, norovirus antigen mapping, public health epidemiology and mathematical modelling.&nbsp; We will make use of existing clinical and public health datasets and samples, and an ongoing community study of norovirus burden to answer questions about transmission and carriage.</p> <p>Norovirus genome sequencing and phylogeography, in the context of international sequence-databases and antigenic mapping of sera will elucidate the origins and evolution of pandemic strains and outbreaks. Mathematical models, developed and fitted to the available data will provide novel insights into norovirus pathogenesis and transmission, informing vaccine design and immunisation strategies.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p>

Amount: £2,825,452
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College London

Moving functional brain imaging into the real world: A wearable, cryogen-free, magnetoencephalography (MEG) system 05 Jul 2016

<p><span data-mce-mark="1"></span></p> <p>Functional neuroimaging systems currently comprise cumbersome equipment built around a small bore into which a participant&rsquo;s head is gently clamped.&nbsp;This artificial environment restricts both the subject groups that can be scanned, and the experimental questions that can be addressed. Here, we aim to develop a new type of magnetoencephalography (MEG) system which will be worn on the subject&rsquo;s head, allowing them to move freely whilst being scanned. This is possible due to the introduction of new quantum sensors which do not rely on superconducting technology. The new system will offer higher spatial resolution and 5-10 times the sensitivity of current state-of-the-art MEG instrumentation because the sensors can be placed directly on the scalp. This will allow non-invasive electrophysiological measurements to be made with unparalleled spatiotemporal accuracy while participants operate in an unconstrained environment, e.g. navigating in space, or interacting with other people. Importantly, the device opens up the possibility of scanning almost any subject or patient group ranging from children requiring pre-surgical epilepsy evaluation, to patients with movement disorders. The low cost, wear-ability and enhanced sensitivity of the new system will be transformative, offering new opportunities to study &lsquo;real world&rsquo; human brain function in health and disease.&nbsp;</p> <p><span data-mce-mark="1"></span></p>

Amount: £872,186
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College London

Planning Quechua Families: Indigenous Subjectivities, Inequalities & Kinship under the Peruvian Family Planning Programme 10 May 2016

<p>This research will investigate how the Peruvian family planning (FP) programme is currently being implemented in an indigenous community, and the wider affects that this public health intervention may have on their family and community networks, as well as on a personal level. Anthropological literature describes how [bio] medical interventions can affect subjectivities and how people view their bodies, which can alter personal &amp; community relationships sometimes to the detriment of the individual. In this study the results of enforced [bio] medical FP will be investigated to ascertain what affects, if any, the FP programme has on traditional kinship and community networks which the Quechua-indigenous rely upon in the Andes. This is also a political issue, as in the recent past (1990-2000) the Peruvian government used coercion to sterilize 200,000+ rural-indigenous people without consent, which was seen as a way of controlling the fertility of this &lsquo;less-desirable&rsquo; sub-population. Today this group are once again being targeted for intervention. The project will investigate if there are any contemporary issues with lack of information, misinformation or discriminatory practise as before, by exploring how the programme is being delivered to indigenous communities.</p> <p>&nbsp;Key words: Reproductive health, Family planning, Contraception, Peru, Subjectivities, Kinship</p>

Amount: £104,202
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College London

Bangles and Bindhi’s:Engaging communities about child marriage in southern Nepal 27 Apr 2016

<p>Child marriage is a major determinant of physical and mental ill health and affects educational and economic attainment. Despite being illegal, it is common in Nepal, having been ingrained over generations, with strong social and financial incentives. Attempts to reduce this have been unsuccessful.</p> <p>Rather than mere education, we plan to work with adults who have married young. We will engage with couples (both men and women) to think deeply about how child marriage has affected their lives and how to tell their story through film. We will create a film together, take it to communities where child marriage is common and show it in large public screenings. A trained facilitator will engage the audience in discussions and help them to reflect on the issues presented. The community members will then have the opportunity to discuss the issues at length in smaller meetings and think about how they may address the issue locally.</p> <p>We hope that by engaging the public in this process, we can help communities take action to prevent child marriage and help both them and us understand the barriers to change.</p>

Amount: £30,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College London

The cellular basis of information processing in a cerebellar microcircuit 05 Jul 2016

<p>Our ability to interpret sensory input and to coordinate movements is often taken for granted, but impairment in these functions during neurological disorders has debilitating effects. How neural circuits perform these functions is poorly understood. The aim of this research is to elucidate how the synaptic and cellular properties of a circuit enable populations of neurons to represent, transform and distinguish sensorimotor information, which is critical for understanding how downstream neurons learn sequences, interpret sensory input and coordinate movements. We will use the powerful new methods that we have recently developed to study information processing in the cerebellar cortex, a well-defined neural circuit involved in coordinating movements. By combining dual-channel 3D acousto-optic lens two-photon imaging with genetically encoded indicators, we will measure signalling in identified populations of synaptic inputs, inhibitory interneurons and granule cells during sensory stimuli and behavioural tasks. We will then identify the biophysical properties of the synapses and neurons involved with optogenetic approaches, imaging and electrophysiology <em>in vitro</em>. Using network models, we will quantify how the cellular properties underlie the network input-output relationship measured <em>in vivo</em>. This will advance the field by linking synaptic and cellular properties to population coding and processing in neural circuits.</p>

Amount: £2,628,685
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College London

Dissecting the neural components of the hippocampal cognitive map 05 Jul 2016

<p>The existence of place, directional, boundary and grid cells in the rat hippocampal formation provides strong evidence that this part of the brain functions as a cognitive map. This theory suggests that the hippocampal formation contains map -like representations of familiar environments which enable the animal to identify its current location together with desirable and undesirable locations and to generate the vectors to move towards or away from these. I propose to use novel behavioural tasks, high-density extracellular recording probes, 2-photon imaging, and pharmacological and optogenetic manipulation of cell activity to explore in-depth the properties of these spatial cells and the role of different components of the hippocampal formation in spatial memory and navigation. Specifically I will address the following questions: How well does the activity of place, head direction and grid cells correlate with the animal&rsquo;s perception of the different aspects of space and which cells are important in supporting navigation to an unmarked goal? &nbsp;What are the relative roles of external landmarks versus internal path integration signals in determining the firing of place cells? Do the l grid cells signal distance travelled in a particular direction or something else such as the shape of the environment?&nbsp;</p>

Amount: £2,837,189
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University College London