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Paul Hamlyn Foundation
The Wellcome Trust
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University of Warwick
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£500 - £1,000
£1,000 - £5,000

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Results

Senility before Alzheimer: Old Age Mental Health in British Medicine, Politicsand Culture, 1840- 1914. 10 Jun 2010

This project will explore how 'senile dementia' was understood before Alzheimer in latenineteenth century Britain in medical, political and popular contexts. It will look to the period 1840- 1914 as a time of intense political interest in both the elderly and the mentally ill, and as the time when the word 'senile' shifted, from a value-neutral term describing the general condition of old age, to a more negative term with significant connotations about mental incapacity. Key goals: - To assess how the mental changes of old age were described and explained by psychiatrists. - To examine the relationship between published ideas and practice in increasingly crowded asylums. - To investigate the relationship between the political discourses on pensions, retirement and the welfare of the aged poor, and mental aspects of ageing. - To survey representations of the 'senile' in 'popular culture', and to examine the relationship between these representations, medical models and political concerns. The final product will be a broad survey of the images and meanings of 'old age' in Victorian society and culture, and the place of 'mental capacity and behaviour' within them.

Amount: £77,731
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Temporal regulation of endocrine gene expression - timing in living cells and tissues. 31 Aug 2010

We aim to understand the dynamic regulation of pituitary hormone gene expression in living cells and tissues using valuable transgenic rat models generated over our previous period of funding. Using luciferase or destabilised fluorescent proteins to report promoter activity in real time, we will use pituitary cells and tissue slice preparations to understand the spatio-temporal patterns of gene expression, with 4-dimensional non-linear mathematical modelling approaches to test in what ways cells are transcriptionally coordinated in different circumstances, including fetal and neonatal development, responses to oestrogen, and lactotroph hyperplasia. The transgenic rat models we have generated have shown dramatic induction of human prolactin gene expression in extra-pituitary tissues after inflammatory stress. In addition to detailed assessment of endogenous prolactin gene expression in human tissues, we will use this to identify the pathways involved in prolactin's role in different types of inflammatory response.

Amount: £177,860
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Unravelling the impact of the mite Varroa destructor on the interaction between the honey bee and its viruses 25 May 2010

To investigate the molecular mechanisms of honeybee antiviral defences, to determine the influence of Varroa on these processes and virus diversity, and to identify honeybee genetic markers associated with virus resistance we set up following objectives: O.1. To assess the effect of Varroa mites on virus diversity (DWV, VDV-1 and recombinants) and virus load in the honeybees. O.2. To analyse the influence of Varroa on the honeybee innate immunity (antiviral response), including signalling pathways and RNA interference. O.3. To dissect the influence of genotype variation in bees on the resistance to the immunosuppressive activity of Varroa and the generation of viral genetic diversity. Work summary - Varroa-free honeybee colonies sourced from Colonsay or Skye will be infested Varroa. These Varroa-infested and genetically related Varroa-free control honeybees will be used to study honeybee-Varroa-DWV interactions. - Virus diversity in honeybees and Varroa mites will be analysed using high-throughput Illumina sequencing. qRT-PCR tests for identification of individual components (in particular DWV, VDV-1 and recombinants thereof) will be devised. - Varroa-infested and -free honeybees will be tested for the presence of DWV-specific siRNAs. The diversity of siRNAs will be analysed by Illumina sequencing. - Microarray transcriptional profiling will be used to identify genes/signalling pathways involved in antivirus defence which are suppressed by Varroa. - The functions of the genes implicated in antivirus defence in the honeybees will be tested in RNAi experiments (egg injection with dsRNA). - Honeybee pupae from Varroa-infested and -free colonies will be subjected to multivariate analyses; individual pupae will be tested for the levels of viruses, expression of antivirus-defence genes, virus-specific siRNAs and will be genotyped. The results will be used to develop models of the interaction between honeybees of different genotypes, Varroa and viruses.

Amount: £207,973
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

State-of-the-art epidemic simulation. 25 Feb 2010

Mathematical models are used to predict the likely spread of infections and hence optimize control methods, this requires increasing levels of realism to be included. At the heart of epidemic models are assumptions about how individuals interact and the chance of the pathogen spreading from an infectious to a susceptible host. In particular, for human diseases, the movement of individuals dictates the spatial spread of infection; however, relatively little information exists on the movement patt erns of humans. The commercial retail sector has dedicated substantial resources towards understanding and predicting human movement patterns and how these correlate with other social measures. Many of these predictions have been verified against a range of surveys. Such ground-truthed movement models provide an opportunity to include far greater realism in the interaction between individuals and hence greater realism in the transmission process. We aim to build next-generation epidemic simulation models that can incorporate a wide range of spatial and social heterogeneities; these detailed predictions will be used to inform localized control measures, develop better predictions of cases and dispersal following a pathogen release. The results will be compared to similar predictions from simpler models to elucidate which heterogeneities are pivotal in determining epidemic spread.

Amount: £457,852
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

State-of-the-art epidemic simulation 31 Aug 2010

Mathematical models are used to predict the likely spread of infections and hence optimize control methods, this requires increasing levels of realism to be included. At the heart of epidemic models are assumptions about how individuals interact and the chance of the pathogen spreading from an infectious to a susceptible host. In particular, for human diseases, the movement of individuals dictates the spatial spread of infection; however, relatively little information exists on the movement patt erns of humans. The commercial retail sector has dedicated substantial resources towards understanding and predicting human movement patterns and how these correlate with other social measures. Many of these predictions have been verified against a range of surveys. Such ground-truthed movement models provide an opportunity to include far greater realism in the interaction between individuals and hence greater realism in the transmission process. We aim to build next-generation epidemic simulation models that can incorporate a wide range of spatial and social heterogeneities; these detailed predictions will be used to inform localized control measures, develop better predictions of cases and dispersal following a pathogen release. The results will be compared to similar predictions from simpler models to elucidate which heterogeneities are pivotal in determining epidemic spread.

Amount: £33,082
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

A Contemporary History of Female Sexual Dysfunction, 1960 to the present. 24 Mar 2010

Female Sexual Dysfunction is an umbrella term for diagnoses relating to desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain, listed in the American Psychiatric Association s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. 43% of women, according to recent statistics, suffer from FSD, and pharmaceutical industry efforts to develop drugs for female sexual problems are attracting growing media attention. Psychoanalysis dominated understandings of female sexuality until the 1960s, after which its influence in American psychi atry waned. The DSM first included sexual dysfunctions in its third edition (1980), based largely on the sexological work of Masters and Johnson. I will explore the relationships between psychiatry, sexology and feminism since 1960 that have led to FSD s emergence, asking How and why sexual dysfunctions were incorporated into the DSM-III; What impact criticism of psychoanalysis and psychiatry, from the 1960s onwards, had on definitions of FSD; How the DSM s definitions of FSD tran slated into American and British psychiatric and popular discussions; and How FSD is understood in the contemporary period, particularly in popular texts. I will write the first historical account of FSD s psychiatric emergence from 1960 to the present, challenging prevalent assessments of FSD s roots and the development of the DSM.

Amount: £155,022
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

'Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi's Commentary on Hippocrates Prognosticon: Edition, Translation, and Study. 26 Nov 2009

The project aims at editing, translating and studying Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi s Commentary on the Hippocratic Prognostics, preserved in three manuscripts. Through collation as well as comparison with other sources (secondary evidence), a critical text will be established. This text will serve as the basis for an idiomatic English translation. The work will be analysed on different levels. First, source criticism will establish what kind of texts Abd al-Latif had at his disposal, and how he ch ose to engage with them. Here other projects at Warwick (the Arabic versions of Galen s Commentary on the Epidemics, and of Galen s On the Affected Parts; al-Kaskari) will create crucial synergies. Second, analysis in terms of medical history will explore where Abd al-Latif went beyond his forebears and brought his own perspective to bear on the Hippocratic material. Thirdly, Abd al-Latif s Commentary also offers interesting insights into the social practice of medicine of his time. The key o bject of this project is to make Abd al-Latif s Commentary available for a more general discussion transcending disciplinary boundaries, and offering a first study of how this text impacted on medical theory and practice in the medieval Islamic world.

Amount: £204,081
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

International symposium on poetry and medicine to be held at Warwick University on 10 April 2010 13 Apr 2010

The aim of the symposium is to consider academic approaches to medicine as a historical and current theme in literary poetry, poetry by and for patients and health professionals and in poetry as therapy. Medicine is to be considered in its broadest sense. In particular the Symposium aims to draw together interests in poetry and medicine in the writings of poets, effects of illness on writings of poets, and poetry as therapy for patients and interest as well as a training tool for health professionals. Awards for the new annual International Hippocrates Prize for Poetry and Medicine will be announced during the Symposium. This new Award attracted over 1600 entries from 28 countries from health professionals, patients and members of the public.

Amount: £5,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Epidemics in Context: Hippocrates, Galen, and Hunayn between East and West to be held at the Warburg Institute on 12-13 November 2010 13 Apr 2010

The conference will build on the current Wellcome project headed by P. E. Pormann and S. Swain to edit and translate into English the medieval Arabic version of Galen's commentary on the Hippocratic Epidemics. A team of international scholars will present papers on aspects of ancient Greek and medieval Islamic medicine in the context of our new work on the first part of Galen's commentary. Epidemics is one of the most important parts of the Hippocratic Corpus and is famous for its inclusion of many case histories. The Greek text is in poor shape and the Arabic of the great translator-physician Hunayn ibn Ishaq is of value to the whole commentary and specifically for those parts lost in Greek (including most of Bk 2 and Bk 6). Our new text and translation of Galen on Epidemics Bks 1 and 2 will be available before the conference as the focus of the discussions. It offers a first-class opportunity for leading scholars to make comparisons between the Arabic-Islamic tradition and its Greek predecessor. The resulting volume will appeal to all those interested in ancient and medieval medicine and the cultural-scientific legacy of antiquity which is shared between East and West.

Amount: £3,850
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Company surgeons, domestic life and medical practice in colonial India, 1750s-1850s 18 Jan 2010

This research on East India Company surgeons contributes to the PI's larger project on the role played by family structures in promoting British imperialism in India c. 1757-1857. It analyses the familial matrices that sustained imperialism and the ways in which social life shaped dominant systems of knowledge, including medical theories of race. Previous studies have demonstrated the contribution that eighteenth- and nineteenth-century East India Company surgeons made to the elaboration of new racial theories, upon which later nineteenth- and twentieth-century Western imperial expansion was to build. Extant research has focused on surgeons' use of new scientific tools, such as medical statistics and morbid anatomy, to address the health needs of male troops in India. This project expands beyond these perspectives, situating Company surgeons' racial theorizing within the two-fold context of their role as the medical attendants of white and mixed race colonial families and their aspirations for marriage, parenthood and financial independence. By assessing surgeons' theories of racial health alongside their experiences in India an man-midwives, family doctors, eligible bachelors and the fathers of children, this study reveals the myriad ways in which social and domestic life shaped the medical profession's scientific understanding in a colonial context.

Amount: £4,831
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

"The making of early modern scientific knowledge: Objects, spaces, practices and epistemologies" to be held at the University of Warwick on 2-3 July 2010 30 Nov 2009

This two-day symposium is the first UK-based attempt to bring together researchers working on knowledge production processes in Europe 1500-1800. The meeting has three main goals. Firstly, it will assess current 'state of play' in scholarship by fostering discussion amongst those working in varied aspects of the field. We aim to assemble an international group of scholars in various stages of their careers from a number of different disciplines including the history of medicine and science, global history and geography. Secondly, we will consider and assess a variety of early modern knowledge making processes, from informal experimentation to reading and writing natural philosophy, and the impact of these practices upon the development of medical and scientific knowledge. We will situate these processes within histories of early modern intellectual networks, histories of commerce, trade and consumption, histories of craft and artisanal skills and studies of experience and expertise. We will also focus upon broader issues such as the role played by gender, race and colonization upon knowledge production and dissemination. Finally, in terms of output, the meeting will generate a series of podcasts and a possible edited volume of essays.

Amount: £3,690
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

'Politics, policies and ethics of AIDS/HIV: Past and present' witness seminar/conference to held on 24 and 25 November 2009 at Warwick University 30 Nov 2009

The overarching objective of this interdisciplinary 2-day witness seminar/conference is to approach the history of AIDS/HIV from two different but intrinsically related methodological directions. Its goal is to comprehend, contextualise, reconstruct and convey the multifarious stories of this pandemic of the recent past and present. The witness seminar, a specialized form of oral history, brings together individuals whose long-term involvement in the fight against AIDS/HIV ranges across different national and international settings. It will offer space for participants to remember, discuss, debate, and even disagree about how AIDS/HIV shaped (and shapes) individual, institutional, national and international politics, policies and ethics. We will explore professional aspects of their work, as well as the reasons for their personal commitment. The seminar is also designed as a training-ground for future historians of medicine. A group of selected students, trained specifically in oral history by Prof Tilli Tansey, will interview and videotape the participants. · Building on the witness seminar, the one-day conference will unite its participants with international scholars working on the representations of AIDS/HIV arising from statistical data, archival, visual and literary materials. The conference objective is twofold: firstly, we will identify different forms of political engagement and health activism. Secondly, we will trace how and why these forms changed over time.

Amount: £7,225
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

"The transmission and communication of medical knowledge and services 1750-1900: The medical marketplace in the modern period." to be held in Venice on 5-6 March 2010 20 Oct 2009

This two-day workshop will explore the medical marketplace in (200 words) the modern period, particularly the transmission, communication and exchange of medical knowledge and services in regional, national and global settings. Participants will examine the transfer of techniques and knowledge in connection with specific diseases, illnesses and crises, as well as health care and regimen more broadly. The workshop aims to consider the implications these processes have for our understanding of the vibrancy of the medical marketplace in the modern period within and across geographical borders and spaces. By transmission we refer to exchanges involving medical practitioners, male and female, qualified and informal, as well as other agents, such as traders, travellers, migrant groups and patients. The two-day event aims to explore these topics comparatively in an international context, focusing on the period 1750-1900. It will incorporate new and path-breaking work on these themes, and involve established academics and early career researchers. We intend to follow up the workshop with the production of an edited volume.

Amount: £3,600
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Biomedical Vacation Scholarship 14 Jun 2010

Not available

Amount: £2,880
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Value in People Award. 29 Mar 2010

Not available

Amount: £200,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

The placental glucocorticoid barrier: regulation by corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) during inflammation. 27 Jan 2010

During human pregnancy, the placenta expresses complex machinery to dynamically control (and limit) fetal exposure to glucocorticoids. Since this system is sensitive to the actions of inflammatory molecules, we hypothesize that in pregnancies associated with inflammatory disorders, this placental glucocorticoid (GC) barrier might be specifically targeted and that placentally-derived corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) might play a key role in adaptation to dysregulated inflammatory responses. The aim of this project is to elucidate the role of CRH in the regulation of placental signalling machinery controlling GC bioactivity in normal placenta and how this system responds to states of inflammatory disease.

Amount: £70,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

The Arabic Version of Galen's On the Affected Parts : Edition and Study. 27 Nov 2008

The key goal is to establish a formal collaboration in the area of editing Arabic versions of Greek medical text between the Classics departments of the universities of Cairo and Warwick, both of which have a track record in this area. We specifically request funding enabling colleagues to visit the partner institution. Moreover, our joint project requires one PDRA, based at Cairo University, who will edit and study the Arabic version of Galen s On the Affected Parts. The Arabic version compris es some 90,000 words, and therefore constitutes a manageable amount of text to edit and study within the allotted time frame of 36 months. The edition will be based on a manuscripts selected according to the methods of textual criticism. The critical apparatus to be produced will record the major and significant variant readings, and indicate where they shed new light on the Greek text. The Arabic version, thus critically edited, will be entered into Arboreal, a database allowing researchers e asily to access and analyse texts in various versions and languages. The project will work mainly in Unicode and XML. A study will conclude the project and contribute significantly to questions of detail regarding medical history and Graeco-Arabic translation technique.

Amount: £26,453
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Open access award. 22 Sep 2009

Not available

Amount: £30,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick

Madness, Migration and the Irish in Lancashire, c.1850-1921 11 Jun 2009

Through a close survey of the records of the Lancashire asylum system, the project will explore the relationship between Irish migrants and mental illness from c.1850 to 1921, a period marked by high levels of migration into Lancashire and Liverpool in particular. It will explore the linkage of mental disorder amongst the Irish to migration, trauma, isolation, poverty, and social and cultural dislocation, questioning whether underlying explanations of mental illness and its predisposing factors differed from those attributed to English patients, other migrant groups, and Irish patients in Ireland. The project will examine whether there were particular stereotypes concerning the Irish which influenced their admission to the asylum and experiences of care, and how concerns about the very visible rise in their numbers were linked to changing debates about insanity, including the impact of degeneracy, race and gender, at a time of massive growth in asylum numbers overall. Uniquely, this project will situate the experiences of Irish pauper asylum patients and those treating them within a broader canvass of efforts to manage perceived and real problems of disease, poverty, and intemperance amongst Irish migrants. The main outputs comprise a co-authored book, three articles, a workshop, conference and public engagement activities.

Amount: £78,286
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Warwick