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Generation genome: life in the making. 21 Sep 2010

Aim: To engage the public in current and future UK-based human molecular genetics and genomics research, providing the tools - through various public forums - to enable citizens to make informed choices and to enter the debate on both personal and societal levels. This proposal is for a national touring exhibition and associated programmes, supporting public engagement in the fiends of human molecular genetics and genomics. Generation Genome: Life in the making will acknowledge the significant investment made by the Wellcome Trust, especially through the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. At the same time, it will reflect the international effort to elucidate the structure and functions of the human genome and apply the resulting knowledge clinically . At the heart of the proposal is a major 350m2 travelling exhibition (henceforth: Generation Genome) aimed at students aged 14 and above and adults, together with 6 smaller, replicable 'exhiblets', featuring a sub-set of key Generation Genome themes. The travelling exhibition will be hosted by larger science centres and museums in the UK, and the exhiblets will be provided to both smaller and larger venues. The travelling exhibition will feature a continuously updated 'News & Views' area, a 'Dialogue Zone' and multiple opportunities for visitors to engage with topical ideas and issues at 'opinion stations'. The exhiblets will feature basic introductory material, the updated News & Views area and a small number of opinion stations. The exhibition will be accompanied by associated learning and engagement programmes, and provide the infrastructure for multi-site engagement activities featuring live links between sites hosting the main exhibition and the exhiblets. Events can then be mounted to coincide with significant developments in human molecular genetics and genomics through the life-time of the project. News and Views will be updated with the latest science discoveries and arising societal issues. Generation Genome will be delivered by At-Bristol on behalf of ecsite-uk and expects to reach at least 1 million people over a five year period.

Amount: £44,240
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: At Bristol

Discovering the function, structure, and evolutionary impact of proteins created de novo (i.e. not by duplication), in particular in viruses and in bacteria. 07 Dec 2009

Novel proteins are thought to be created mostly through gene duplication. However, recent studies showed that de novo protein creation occurs at an unexpectedly high rate. I have shown that a particular subset of de novo proteins, those encoded by viral overlapping genes, are abundant and relatively easy to identify. These proteins have unusual sequence and structure properties (being unstructured or having previously unobserved structural folds), and specific functions (usually associated with viral pathogenicity). In collaboration with two experienced investigators with complementary skills, I will collect and curate a much larger dataset of several hundreds de novo proteins from viruses (mainly) and from bacteria. I will study their sequence, evolution, function, and structure, through bioinformatics and experimental approaches. In particular I aim to solve about ten of their 3D structures. This will provide a new, experimental approach to understand the evolution of protein stru cture and possibly challenge the belief that nature creates proteins only according to a limited number of folds. This research will also improve our scant knowledge of viral accessory proteins, which are often created de novo, and may uncover features associated with virus emergence. Each step of the project will generate findings that can be published independently.

Amount: £224,299
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Health before the health service. 23 Aug 2010

The proposal is to research and locate amateur films shot by doctors and other health professionals, of their working and domestic lives. We will edit some of the movies we uncover into a taster tape for a pitch to BBC Two through the BBC independent commissioning executive for specialist factual programming. We will be proposing a series of 3 x 60 min programmes about health care in Britain in the years before the creation of the NHS in 1948.

Amount: £8,500
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Available Light Productions

Confocal microscopic studies in Neuroscience. 05 May 2010

The objectives of the first project are to identify functional populations of glycinergic premotor interneurons in mice expressing EGFP under control of the GLYT2 promoter, and then to perform detailed analysis of synapses that these cells form on motoneurons. We will test the prediction that the properties of these synapses are related to the functions of the interneurons from which they originate. The second project will use a rodent model of spinal cord injury to test the hypothesis that tw o leading experimental therapies, olfactory ensheathing cell transplants and chondroitinase treatment, improve recovery of function by inducing plasticity in spared fibre systems, rather than by promoting regeneration. We will use morphological and electrophysiological approaches to distinguish between anatomical plasticity (formation of new connections) and increased efficiency of existing synapses. The third project will investigate the effects of loss of the methyl-CpG binding protein MeCP 2 in a mouse model of the autism spectrum disorder Rett syndrome (RTT). MeCP2 is expressed in a mosaic pattern in this model, due to random X-chromosome inactivation. We will first determine whether cells with or without MeCP2 are functionally and morphologically equivalent. We will then establish whether structural changes induced by MeCP2-deficiency are reversible following its restoration.

Amount: £227,781
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Glasgow

New infrastructure for EM studies at the University of Leeds. 04 Feb 2010

Electron microscopy is a major tool in structural biology. The EM unit within the Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology at the University of Leeds operates a modern FEI T-F20 microscope for high-resolution work. For preliminary cryo-EM studies we rely on a JEOL 1200EX electron microscope that is now >20 years old, and becoming increasingly difficult and expensive to maintain. Furthermore, because of its unsophisticated vacuum system it is only marginally capable of working in cryo-mode , meaning cryo-specimen optimisation and training must actually be carried out on our T-F20. We wish to purchase an FEI G2-Spirit microscope to replace the obsolete instrument, together with a CCD camera and an FEI Vitrobot freezing apparatus. The new microscope will bring dramatic benefits to EM research in Leeds. It will enable rapid collection of low-resolution and preliminary cryo data to support the substantial portfolio of structural research in Leeds. Used in conjunction with the Vitrobot freezing apparatus, it will enable optimisation of specimen preparation for frozen-hydrated specimens, enhancing the productivity of our T-F20. Finally, it will improve our ability to properly train users for a scientific career in cryo-EM, and enhance the overall productivity of the EM unit.

Amount: £364,689
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Leeds

Before 'Translational Medicine': Bench-Clinic Relations since 1950. 10 Jun 2010

In this programme of research our group will determine how relations between biomedical research, clinical research and clinical application have changed since 1950, and explore the lessons for the new paradigm of 'Translational Medicine'. Our hypothesis is that the linear model of innovation, from bench to bedside, that it is central to the current formulation of Translational Medicine is misleading; we will use historical methods to show that interactions between laboratory and clinic were, a nd still are, multiple and complex, and that other sites and agencies shape the nature, rate and success of innovations in diagnosis, treatment and care. Our Research Assistants will work on mental disorders, dementia and stroke, with the PI and CI undertaking work on the impact of molecular biology in diagnosis and treatment. Our three PhD students will look at the work of the Medical Research Council, imaging technologies and evidence-based medicine. As well as engaging with the public in a variety of activities, we will run events with and for researchers and clinicians, advised by a group of distinguished, senior clinicians and researchers.

Amount: £887,085
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Manchester

The Casebooks Project: Simon Forman and Richard Napier's Medical Records, 1596-1634. 12 Nov 2009

The project s primary goal is to produce an electronic edition of Forman and Napier s casebooks. This will contain roughly a million words of transcribed text, plus an extensive editorial apparatus. Users will be able to view the records either as facsimile transcriptions or to interrogate them, generating tables of associated cases. The edition will be mounted on an open-access website which will include: a scholarly introduction, as one would expect of a critical edition; more accessible mater ial introducing the casebooks and Renaissance astrology and medicine; instructions for using the edition for scholarly and pedagogic purposes; and full technical documentation. The project s second major objective is to use the edition of Forman and Napier s casebooks to initiate collective reflections amongst historians of medicine about patients and medical records. Scholars will be brought together in two workshops. The first will introduce the edition, consider the current state o f work in the field, and establish essay topics for an edited volume on the patient in history. Draft essays will be circulated and discussed at the second workshop. The resulting volume will present cutting edge research on the patient in history and set the standard in the field for future scholars.

Amount: £398,817
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Cambridge

Art and health in urban India 05 Aug 2010

We are beginning a series of activities that foster dialogue between segregated communities: slum dwellers, professional artists and health scientists. The activities involve collaborations between established artists and emerging artists from Mumbai's majority communities. We would like to work towards a high-profile public engagement event to stimulate wider discussion of urban health, to give our collaborators exposure and experience of professional practice, and to cement the initiative. Our idea is to capitalise on the International Conference on Urban Health, India 2011, by mounting a complementary exhibition of creative works on the health of people who live in India's slums. We hope that the event will be the first in a series. Location International Conference on Urban Health, India, October 2011 (city to be confirmed). Aims 1. To publicly acknowledge the huge contribution of urban slum dwellers to India's economic and cultural life. 2. To democratise the sharing of information on urban health science. 3. To encourage artistic creation in a forum in which professionals and amateurs develop ideas together and communicate with international urban health experts and the public. Audience People who would not usually go to an exhibition, people who would not usually enter an urban slum, and people who would not usually expect to engage with art at an international scientific conference. Methods Collaborative development of artworks for an exhibition of pictorial and plastic arts, film and live performance on an urban health theme, linked with a high-profile international conference and its surrounding media coverage.

CRONICAS Public Health & Communication Training Programme for multiplicadores jóvenes 05 Aug 2010

Our engagement project proposes to train a cohort of multiplicadores jóvenes in communication and public health research. We envisage the cohort will become integrated within the CRONICAS Centre of Excellence for Chronic Diseases and take an active role in designing communication strategies to help the Centre translate its research to the public. The CRONICAS multiplicadores jóvenes training begins with a series of intensive participatory training sessions, aimed at introducing young people to communication within a public health context. Twelve teams of 3 students (aged 16-17 years) will be selected from a diverse range of secondary schools in Lima. Three parallel training sessions will be run weekly for 7 consecutive weeks; three groups of four schools (12 students) will participate in each session. Teams will work together with local experts in communication to learn about communication strategies. Throughout the training sessions multiplicadores jóvenes will also have the opportunity to learn about public health issues relevant in Peru through a series of interactive sessions with local public health researchers. During the sessions, student teams will be provided with guidance and support to design a short-term communication campaign about healthy lifestyles directed at their peers. A dedicated full-time communicator will be available throughout the year to mentor, and support the student teams while they design and execute their campaigns. Subsequently, the cohort of multiplicadores jóvenes will return to CRONICAS Centre of Excellence for Chronic Diseases three times during the school year to share the outputs of their campaigns. These sessions will also serve as an opportunity to integrate the cohort as a youth advisory board for the CRONICAS Centre. We believe this partnership will increase the Centre's effectiveness and more importantly inform, educate and empower a cohort of multiplicadores jóvenes to become more actively involved in their communities.

Amount: £28,885
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia

The Kenyan Alliance of Health and Science Journalists (KAHSR) 05 Aug 2010

The establishment of a formal journalism support and training organization, to be named the Kenyan Alliance of Health and Science Reporters (KAHSR), is intended to identify and nurture Kenyan journalists who have shown an interest or expertise in covering health and science-related issues. Initially, the process of connecting this group of reporters, through regular email briefings and informational updates, would ideally create a sense of cohesiveness and shared initiative. Throughout the course of a year, these journalists would receive mentoring support to produce focused nuanced health and science-related stories for their media companies. These journalists would also have the opportunity to attend formal briefings, organized and sponsored by KAHSR, which would highlight health and science-related topics in the news, the latest research, and policy analysis. Over the course of a year, 5 general briefings in different regions of Kenya could be interspersed with email alerts with story leads and suggestions about newsworthy trends and policy developments to pursue. Ultimately, the benchmark of the KAHSR strategy would be quarterly training workshops, which would be held at the KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Program in Kilifi. Journalists with a proven track record of producing health and research related stories would be able to compete for one of 6 slots at each of 4 workshops. A week's immersion in the Kilifi program, including interactions with researchers, field trips, and guided writing and reporting exercises, would eventually produce a cadre of reporters with a level of exposure to scientific and research practice that could dramatically strengthen their basic knowledge, comprehension and initiative in reporting on health and science issues.

"Sarau Cientifico", a project for engaging low income communities in biomedicine research and bioethics. 25 Feb 2010

Although the debates on health research and bioethics issues have been increasing in Brazil, there is still an important gap of projects aiming to engage the general public, mainly among the poorest sectors of the society, in the discussions. Our project has as objective to address such gap. The objective of our project is to design a Sarau científico , which aims to provide cultural and scientific activities creating opportunities to discuss the impact of health research on the society and bioethical issues. We will use artistic events such as literature, music, and drama for engaging low income young people. Sarau científico can be roughly translated as Scientific Party sarau is an informal party in which people meet to dance, sing, read poems and other cultural expressions, as well as chat and share opinions and ideas. Following the general idea of the Cafés Scientifiques widely disseminated in several countries in several cases supported by the Wellcome Trust , the Sarau científico also aims to discuss science in an informal space. In this case, we added Brazilian cultural components, aiming to create a mood in which the low income young people feel comfortable and motivated to actively participate. Among the themes to be discussed are clinical trials using humans, stem-cell research, cloning, genetically modified crops, HIV/AIDS, experiments in animals, human genetics, genetic mapping, genetic determinism and others. The activities will be designed, in a participatory way, by a multidisciplinary group including scientists, experts in bioethics, science communicators, musicians, actors andyoung people who live in the low income communities around the Museum of Life. After the periodof 12 months of this project, the Sarau científico will become a permanent activity of Museum of Life.

Amount: £29,818
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Oswaldo Cruz Foundation

Inside Nature's Giants. 14 Jun 2010

Not available

Amount: £140,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Windfall Films

Are non-malarial fevers in pregnancy significant causes of under recognised maternal mortality and morbidity and low birth weight in Laos? 16 Jun 2010

Laos had one of the highest maternal mortality rates in Asia at 405/100,000 live births with slow progress in reducing maternal mortality rate. Although obstetric problems are clearly important, the abundance and diversity of infectious diseases in Laos suggests that these may also contribute to maternal mortality and morbidity and poor birth outcomes. That this may be so is suggested by a research project on the aetiology and impact of fever during pregnancy in Vientiane, Laos, for which Dr Vilada Chansamouth is the PI. This has suggested that dengue fever, scrub typhus and murine typhus are key causes of febrile illness during pregnancy and have adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, Vientiane, being the main urban centre in Laos, is atypical of the country and we propose to determine the incidence of fever in pregnant women in a poor rural southern province (Salavan) in a cohort study of 1,800 pregnant women and to determine the causes and impact of non-malarial fevers amongst these women and their newborns. These are the key goals.

Amount: £126,268
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

Statistical analysis and modelling of the effect of conjugate vaccine and systemic capsular antibody on carriage and transmission of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Kenyan children. 16 Jun 2010

The indirect effects of conjugate vaccines have varied markedly in different populations with profound implications for the total effectiveness of each programme. This research project aims to analyse the relationship between vaccination with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) and nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine and non-vaccine strains, and to analyse the effect of serotype-specific antibody concentrations on prevalent and incident homologous nasopharyngeal carriage. These analyses will generate parameters which can be used in models recently developed within the PneumoCarr consortium for evaluating the population effects of vaccine in settings similar to Kenya. They will also aid in validating and extending these models for application in developing country settings. To achieve these objectives, the research project will first analyse data from four studies carried out in Kilifi, Kenya. Next, the parameters obtained from these studies will be used to model the impact of PCV on pneumococcal transmission and disease using well developed modelling structures. As the vaccine is being introduced in Kenya in the third quarter of 2010, and as the effectiveness of PCV introduction is being monitored in a specific study in Kilifi, the validity of the model predictions can be tested with time against the epidemiological observations.

Prospective study of the impact of behaviour problems on the incidence and course of asthma symptoms 24 Nov 2009

A relationship between psychosocial factors and occurrence of symptoms and severity of asthma has recently been identified. There is still controversy about the relationship between asthma and a child's mental health, since the pathways through which this relationship is established are complex and not well researched. In particular the direction of causality has not been well established. This study aims to analyze the impact of behavior problems on development and course of asthma, comparing the baseline children's behavior profiles and results from an evaluation of asthma in two different later periods. It is a longitudinal study, in a cohort of 1362Brazilian children resident in the low-income urban area, participants of the project SCAALA - Social Changes Asthma and Allergy in Latin America, funded by the Welcome Trust as a Center of Excellence in Latin America.

Investigation of the etiological agents of leishmaniasis in the Volta region of Ghana. 24 Nov 2009

The first goal of the project will be to establish in vitro cultures of Ghanaian Leishmania. Lesion aspirates will be collected from patients recruited into the study and inoculated into culture media. Transformation and growth of promastigotes will be monitored and positive cultures will be expanded and cryopreserved. The second goal is to isolate DNA from cultured parasites and use this in PCR, PCR-RFLP, cloning and sequencing to establish the identity of the species (which may be novel). Results will be compared to an extensive bank of validated reference isolates. The third goal will be to investigate the relationship of Ghanaian Leishmania to parasites from other endemic foci in Africa and elsewhere using bioinformatic analysis of DNA sequences and/or microsatellite data (the choice depending on the specific identity of the parasite). This will enable an assessment to be made as to whether the disease has been present in Ghana for some time but unidentified, possibly as a zoonosis, or whether it has been recently introduced from elsewhere and become locally established.

Amount: £78,978
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Lancaster University

MA in History of Medicine 21 Sep 2010

Not available

Amount: £24,497
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Oxford

MA in History of Medicine 13 Jul 2010

Not available

Amount: £23,215
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Durham

Masters in the History of Medicine 13 Jul 2010

Not available

Amount: £23,005
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Oxford Brookes University