- Total grants
- Total funders
- Total recipients
- Earliest award date
- 14 Dec 2005
- Latest award date
- 30 Sep 2016
- Total GBP grants
- Total GBP awarded
- Largest GBP award
- Smallest GBP award
- Total Non-GBP grants
Public Engagement Provision 20 May 2014
The Cairo Genizah Collection at Cambridge University Library is the single largest and most important collection of medieval Jewish manuscripts in the world. Comprising approximately 200,000 leaves, the discovery of this treasuretrove 100 years ago revolutionised the study of medieval Judaism and our understanding of the broader economic, social and intellectual history of the Mediterranean world. Intended as a resting place for religious works, the Genizah ('religious storeroom') has in fact preserved an ample number of secular texts too, both literary and documentary, and conspicuous among these is a unique medical corpus of approximately 2000 manuscripts. The medical fragments of the Cairo Genizah (which date from the 10th century onwards) include a large number of Judaeo-Arabic renditions of Arabic translations of Greek medical texts and of Arabic medical works, often annotated by their medieval users, together with original works by prominent, and less well-known, Jewish physicians. Uniquely,the collection preserves numerous prescriptions, druggists' notes, and lists of materia medica. This project will build upon previous work in the Collection, and make these important items freely available through Cambridge University's digital library platform, in the form of a detailed electronic catalogue of all the items of medical content along with high quality digital images of the manuscripts themselves. These will form a unique source of research on the study, transmission and practice of medicine by Jews and Muslims in the medieval Mediterranean world, and we believe that the medical humanities community will greatly benefit from their enhanced availability.
Glucagon is secreted from pancreatic alpha-cells during times of hypoglycaemia. It binds to receptors on the surface of liver cells promoting gluconeogenesis, while simultaneously inhibiting glycolysis and glycogen synthesis. While this has beneficial effects during starvation, for people suffering from type 2 diabetes this significantly contributes to their overall hyperglycaemia. Little is currently known about the mechanisms by which glucagon secretion is modulated. The incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) inhibits glucagon secretion, but the mechanism by which it achieves this remains unclear. Expression levels of the GLP-1 receptor are extremely low in alpha-cells and GLP-1 can inhibit glucagon secretion in pancreatic cells obtained from GLP-1-/- 'knockout' mice. We therefore hypothesise that GLP-1 mediates its effects using a non-cognate receptor. GLP-1 has been documented to bind and activate the glucagon receptor (GCGR), a receptor that has been demonstrated to show coupling to various effector proteins. Thus this research project aims to characterise the precise signalling properties of the GCGR when stimulated with GLP-1 in a physiologically relevant cell line. To achieve this we will use the pancreatic alpha-cell line (alphaTC1.6) that responds to GLP-1 and secretes glucagon.
Investigating the influence and therapeutic potential of RNA Gquadruplex structures on positive 30 Sep 2016
An!increasing!body!of!evidence!suggests!that!RNA!secondary!structures,!such!as!G] quadruplexes!and!stem]loops,!play!crucial!roles!in!the!regulation!of!translation!and!RNA! replication!during!viral!infection.!Our!ability!to!exploit!such!RNA!structures!therapeutically!is! dependent!upon!our!knowledge!of!how!they!act,!which!remains!unclear.!!One!goal!of!this! research!is!to!systematically!identify!and!examine!the!influence!of!RNA!G]quadruplexes! present!in!the!coding!regions!of!two!widely!used!model!calciviruses.!Using!the!established! reverse!genetic!systems!for!these!viruses,!the!effects!of!mutations!that!alter!the!presence!and! distribution!of!G]quadruplex!structures!can!be!studied,!both!in!terms!of!virus!efficiency!and!rate! of!RNA!synthesis!in!cell!culture.!If!suitable!mutated!viruses!are!obtained,!the!persistence!of! these!viruses!within!a!small!animal!model!will!be!examined!which!will!give!insights!into!the! suitability!of!such!modified!viruses!for!use!as!vaccines.!The!second!goal!of!this!research!is!to! investigate!the!mechanisms!by!which!helicases!control!the!regulation!imposed!by!such!RNA! structures.!Using!a!reconstitution!system!for!translation!initiation!in&vitro,!the!hierarchy!between! different!RNA!secondary!structures!and!the!helicases!that!mediate!their!unwinding!can!be! examined.
Decision-making concerning eating and drinking interventions for people with progressive neurological disease with and without decision-making capacity in the USA. 31 Mar 2015
Introduction: Decisions concerning eating and drinking for people with progressive neurological diseases are highly emotive and ethically challenging, particularly if the individual lacks decision-making capacity. These decisions are becoming increasingly common as the age of the UK population rises with the associated increase in the prevalence of neuro-degenerative diseases. In developing this project, our research group undertook a systematic literature review which revealed that most publish ed research into this area is based within the USA. Research question: How are decisions made concerning eating and drinking interventions for people with progressive neurological disease with and without decision-making capacity in the USA? Methods: Library-based research at Library of Congress and Georgetown University; 8-10 semi-structured US clinician interviews. Outcomes: (1) Research paper examining policy and best-practice on decision-making for people with progressive neurologic al disease in the USA (2) Academic and clinician network for future international collaborations (3) Establish an evidence base on policy and best practice internationally This grant provides excellent value for money as it will enable: a focused three month research project based in Washington, D.C.; and provide funds for a meeting of international collaborators to establish a network for a future project and funding bid.
A Two-day Conference on the Human Right to Health, Universal Health Coverage and Priority Setting. 27 Oct 2014
This grant would be used to fund a two-day conference exploring the various tensions between what the UN refers to as the progressive realisation of the human right to health, the international effort to secure universal health coverage and the inevitable need to set priorities between different treatments and services. The conference would bring together three research centres within UCL (the Institute of Global Health, the Institute of Global Governance and the Centre for Philosophy, Justi ce and Health) to hear new evidence from researchers, policy-makers and practitioners from both the UK and abroad. The conference would: i) explore existing policy drives towards HRH, universal health coverage and priority setting activities; ii) reflect upon conceptual and ethical tensions between such policies; and iii) assess the feasibility of solutions aimed at resolving this tension. The conference's main output would be a consensus statement, drawn up by Benedict Rumbold and circula ted to delegates before the meeting and discussed by attendees on Day Two of the conference itself, setting out the delegates thoughts on the next steps towards remedying the current conflict between HRH, the drive towards Universal Coverage and priority setting.
We believe that the concept of food addiction, which has gained a great deal of currency despite its poor scientific support, could be explored in a new and exciting way through drama. We want to develop a radio play which examines the science of food addiction and the development of scientific ideas, research and careers, through the story of a mildly hapless neuroscientist who unexpectedly finds himself appointed the government's food addiction czar. Despite the fame and fortune attached to th is position, he is forced to watch while the science is twisted to suit the demands of policy.
Defining the mechanisms by which maternal diet-induced obesity programmes central control of palatable food intake 25 Mar 2013
In light of growing evidence for a transgenerational component in the current human obesity epidemic, it is important to understand how maternal environment affects the long-term health of the developing foetus. In animal models, maternal over-nutrition has been shown to programme a metabolic syndrome-like phenotype and hyperphagia in the offspring. In this project, we propose to use anestablished maternal diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model to investigate (i)whether exposure to a high fat, high palatable diet after weaning exacerbates the hyperphagia and increased adiposity previously seen in chow-fed offspring and (ii) how maternal DIO programmes hyperphagia in the offspring with a particular focus on the mesolimbic dopamine pathway involved in palatable feeding. For this, our key goals are to (a) characterise the behavioural phenotype of these offspring in terms of food preferences and motivated behaviours; (b) define the structural development of neural projections within the mesolimbic dopamine pathway; (c) to establish the effect of maternal DIO on gene and protein expression levels in this pathway to explore underlying biochemical mechanisms. Thes three levels of investigation will provide us with novel insight into the mechanistic and functional aspects of the developmental programming of the central control of feeding.
"Damaging the body: Medical and social concepts of harm" to be held at St Bartholomew's Hospital pathology museum May-June 2012 13 Feb 2012
"Leprosy, language and identity in the medieval world" to be held at Cambridge on 5-6 April 2011 14 Dec 2010
This international workshop aims to bring together leading scholars and early career researchers in medieval history, archaeology, palaeopathology, literature and art history to address a multifaceted theme: leprosy, language and identity in the medieval world. The issues of language and identity are central to numerous questions about lepers, leprosy and: leprosaria (leper hospitals) in the Middle Ages, and to broader issues relating to disease from ancient to modern times. There will be ample opportunity for discussion, both formal and: informal, to encourage dialogue between scholars from different disciplines and produce new ideas and conclusions. The: workshop will consist of three 50-minute presentations by keynote speakers (Luke Demaitre, Carole Rawcliffe and Francois-Olivier Touati), approximately ten 20-minute papers, and a roundtable discussion to conclude the second day. The papers will later be published in a volume edited by Elm a Brenner and Peter Murray Jones, marking a much-needed interdisciplinary publication on this topic. The meeting also aims to bring scholars of medieval medicine to the University of Cambridge, where the Department of History & Philosophy of Science is a major centre for the history of medicine. There will be a visit to the Department's Whipple Library on the first day of the workshop.
Physiology: A lexicon history 19 Oct 2010
This project entails a historical synthesis of the expression, physiology. Though this term today denotes a specific biomedical field dealing with the study of how living beings work, it has a much broader scientific heritage. The idiom physiologia originally signified 'discourse on nature' (or 'natural philosophy'- the forerunner of today's expression 'science'). The Greek etymon physis ('nature') has generated one of the most diverse arrays of word-forms in the history of science. It is the origin of such latter-day words as 'physics' and 'physician', as well as 'physiology'. How, why, and when these terms split from their mutual etymological ancestor- and, more specifically, how the erstwhile universal name 'physiology' acquired its home in biomedicine- are questions explored in this project. While the birth right of physiologia is well known to scholars of the ancient world, it is not familiar to today's practitioners of the biomedical sciences. The proposed study will interweave a number of timely etymologic and semantic historical threads, coming to the fore recently, that bear upon the modern-day field of physiology. The work will culminate in a monograph, representing a popular account aimed at the interface between the history of science and contemporary biomedicine, particularly today's Physiome Project.
PhD Programme for Clinicians at the University of Cambridge: "Generation of 'translation ready' ground state human induced pluripotent stem cells and cardiomyocytes as a prelude to disease modelling in cardiovascular medicine". 18 Feb 2009
The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from somatic cells brings the possibility of translational applications in regenerative medicine, disease modelling and drug screening a step closer. However current derivation methods remain inefficient, unpredictable and clinically unsafe. In order to maximise the translational potential of iPS cells in clinical medicine, these methods must be optimised. I will establish a 'translation ready' iPS cell by identifying the most efficiently reprogrammable of a number of human somatic cells including dermal fibroblasts, keratinocytes and adipose tissue. Clinically safer non-viral gene delivery methods will also be developed. Attempts will then be made to capture and maintain ground state pluripotency by deriving iPS cells in variations of the recently described 2i/LIF conditions shown to suppress early differentiation signals, reduce epigenetic restriction and improve iPS derivation efficiency in mouse and rat iPS cells. The resulting iPS cells will be characterised in terms of gene expression, epigenetic profiles and differentiation potential. Ultimately, iPS cells derived from a patient with a known monogenetic cardiac channelopathy such as long QT syndrome will be differentiated into cardiomyocytes and functionally examined by patch clamp in collaboration with electrophysiology colleagues to prove their suitability for the modelling of monogenetic cardiac channelopathies.
"A programme of events by Mary Fissell in Cambridge" to be held in Cambridge form January to July 2011 13 Jul 2010
We seek support to bring Professor Mary Fissell to Cambridge to strengthen and enhance our programme on 'Generation to Reproduction', the core activities of which are supported by a Strategic Award (2009-14).
Autonomy and mental health. 22 Sep 2009
The objectives of the proposed event are threefold: 1. to provide a forum for constructive dialogue between philosophers, mental health practitioners, and legal experts; 2. to spell out key interrelations between two fundamental, yet challenging concepts, that is, autonomy and mental health; and 3. to deepen and expand our understanding of the role of autonomy in psychiatry and promote an inclusive, destigmatising approach to mental disorders.
I am conducting research for the purpose of completing a PhD on French antimalaria policy in French West Africa from 1890-1940. My main aim for this project is to examine how the French government and their health officials developed malaria policy and then attempted to implement it over a vast and diverse federation of colonies, and what impact, if any, this policy had on improving the health of rural Africans. To do this I will examine how the policy was implemented in the Sahel, an area that because of its size, relatively small population density, and aridity made it an especially challenging area to implement the colonial government's health policy. Malaria is endemic in the region, but it is liable to fluctuations in infection rates during times in which there is a change in the pattern of rainfall. My project attempts to look at how the health policy faired against these ecological challenges and what measures were taken to attempt to spread health care to an area the size of the western United States, but containing a population of less than fifteen million. My second aim is to examine the medical treatment of rural children in French West Africa. There is very little known about the medical treatment of children in this period and I believe that the early campaigns to decrease child mortality and the attempts to tackle the problem of malaria in infants in French West Africa was indicative of how health care was envisioned and implemented in rural French West Africa. It is through the analysis of the successes and failures of this programme that one can gather the role that French health care, through the Assistance Medicale Indigene, impacted the day to day lives of rural Africans.
Body Matters 13 Apr 2010
Body Matters' is an exhibition exploring how cutting edge research in science, medicine and archaeology taking place at UCL can change and challenge our perceptions of health-related issues. The exhibition will take an audience-based approach to communicate complex research in an attractive and accessible way to an adult audience with no specialist knowledge of some or all of these fields The exhibition is designed and curated by postgraduate Museum Studies students from UCL, and is part of a project which also includes an event to be held at the Science Museum's Dana Centre. The exhibition will be held in the Leventis Gallery of UCL's Institute of Archaeology and will run from May 2010 to April 2011. Audience research has shown that the audience will be largely adult and academic, but with no specialist knowledge of science, medicine or archaeology. The exhibition is open to UCL staff, students and visitors, and also to the public. We are seeking funding to assist us in creating an exhibition that is as attention-grabbing and inspiring as the research it is presenting, and to partially fund the private view, which will include the Director of the Science Museum and UCL's Vice Provost of Research as speakers.
For expenses associated with the leadership training programme at Cornell University, USA, Summer 2006. 22 May 2006