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The National Lottery Community Fund (226,066) The Wellcome Trust (16,854) Co-operative Group (16,503) Sport England (15,905) The National Lottery Heritage Fund (10,201) Garfield Weston Foundation (6,126) Lloyds Bank Foundation for England and Wales (5,467) The Henry Smith Charity (4,590) Northern Rock Foundation (4,331) Community Foundation serving Tyne & Wear and Northumberland (4,320) Esmée Fairbairn Foundation (4,221) BBC Children in Need (4,183) Woodward Charitable Trust (2,767) Quartet Community Foundation (2,683) Department for Transport (2,577) The Tudor Trust (2,554) City Bridge Trust (2,480) Paul Hamlyn Foundation (2,367) Wolfson Foundation (2,210) Essex Community Foundation (1,876) Greater London Authority (1,846) Community Foundation for Surrey (1,776) Heart Of England Community Foundation (1,727) County Durham Community Foundation (1,659) The Robertson Trust (1,542) Suffolk Community Foundation (1,428) Comic Relief (1,411) Glasgow City Council (1,365) The Clothworkers Foundation (1,358) London Borough of Southwark (1,260) Somerset Community Foundation (1,259) Nesta (1,247) Guy's and St Thomas' Charity (1,230) Corra Foundation (1,184) London Catalyst (1,174) Oxfordshire Community Foundation (1,139) Birmingham City Council (1,103) CAF (1,004) Leeds Community Foundation (905) Masonic Charitable Foundation (895) Power to Change Trust (870) Sussex Community Foundation (852) Two Ridings Community Foundation (792) Trafford Housing Trust Social Investment (779) Ministry of Justice (774) National Churches Trust (760) Walcot Foundation (755) Devon Community Foundation (715) The Dulverton Trust (680) A B Charitable Trust (665) See Less

Results

Unseen: The Lives of Looking. 10 Apr 2013

This first feature length essay film by contemporary artist Dryden Goodwin will delve into distinct worlds of intense scrutiny, through the self-reflexive prism of his singular and intense drawing and filmmaking activity. 'Unseen: The Lives of Looking' will explore different scales of looking, different forms of looking, different reasons for looking, in a poetic and metaphysically charged journey, charting a series of close encounters by the artist. The film will focus primarily on four individ uals, each with a distinct relationship to looking: a forensic scientist, a surgeon, a clairvoyant and an astronomer. Working beyond conventional narrative and script, yet weaving compelling intricate emotional through lines, the film will be informed by the close observation of each world. The artist's own gaze and implicit presence will forge the bond that links the lives of these probing observers. Growing out of Goodwin's long-term investigation into expansive forms of portraiture, the fi lm aims to unlock diverse worlds, to expose the kinship of those who live by the sensory rules of observation and visual analysis in the pursuit of knowledge. Revealing the specialist apparatus and methods of the forensic scientist's gathering of minute evidence, the surgeon's effecting of medical change, the clairvoyant's voicing of extra-sensory perception and the astronomer's decoding of the cosmos, an episodic structure will emerge in a shifting visual palette. The film will extend into a ci nematic context the role of the soundtrack, a key component in Goodwin's work.

Amount: £29,372
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Misc Greater London

Contextual manipulation of the IL-6 family of cytokines to alter and enhance CD4+ T cell immunity to respiratory viral infections. 29 May 2013

By achieving the following research goals I hope to determine the function and protective capacity of the IL-6 family of cytokines during respiratory viral infections: Specific goal #1: To determine the importance of IL-6 and other members of the IL-6 cytokine family in T FH development and humoral immunity. I will use a series of conditional cytokine receptor knockout mice to determine the role of the IL-6 family of cytokines during respiratory viral infection. Specific goal #2: To determ ine the mechanisms behind temporally distinct cytokine responses of CD4+ T cells throughout infection. I have found that IL-6 signaling promotes the differentiation of virus specific CD4 T cells into TFH at late, but not early, stages of infection. I will therefore identify the critical molecular mechanisms that modulate this cytokine signaling at the level of signal transduction and transcription. Specific goal #3: To target CD4+ T cells to enhance humoral immunity toward viral infection du ring infancy. By comparing and contrasting infant and adult RSV infection in mice I will determine the effects of age on promoting TFH. I will then attempt to boost immune responses to infant RSV infection by targeting the IL-6/gp130 pathway.

Amount: £1,073,815
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Imperial College London

'Recovery': a sonic brain injury drama of being disassembled, and reassembled, slightly askew. . 10 Apr 2013

'Recovery' is an audio-based artwork about my experience of nearly dying from a subdural empyema, a rare brain infection that has a one-in-a-million chance of occurring. Part sound-installation, part drama, part visceral-roller-coaster-ride, it immerses the audience in my process of reintegrating into the world with an acquired brain injury, of being disassembled, and reassembled, slightly askew. It will be developed with experts in Neurology from the Royal Victoria Hospital in Belfast (Roy M cConnell, Consultant Neurosurgeon; Wendy Spence, Consultant Neuropsychologist; Colin Williamson, Head Injury Liaison Nurse), and artists in the Sonic Arts Research Centre (Queens University, Belfast). Both are global centres of excellence. Audience members experience 'Recovery' one at a time, accompanied by a nurse who leads the individual to a hospital bed where they lay down, put on an eye-mask and headphones, and listen. 'Recovery' integrates sonic arts technology, dramatic narrative, movement and sound to get inside the head of a person's experience of brain trauma. It is a story of terror, discovery, humor, but above all, hope. By immersing each individual audience member in this intimate and visceral way, 'Recovery' can powerfully engage members of the general public, including health and social care professionals, families and survivors of brain trauma, doctors, neurosurgeons, psychologists, public policy makers, scientists, academics, and artists to create empathy, stimulate interest and discussion, and encourage new ways of thinking about neurology and brain trauma.

Amount: £30,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Misc Northern Ireland

The Kindness of Strangers. 10 Apr 2013

Every 15 seconds in the UK, someone dials 999. An elite team of professionals are trained to deal with a huge spectrum of human trauma. Paramedics provide a 24 hour service as the first point of contact for the NHS. The Kindness of Strangers is a celebration of their stories. In a unique theatrical experience, The Kindness of Strangers puts audience members in the position of paramedics on their first day on the job. Audience members will travel in the back of a moving ambulance around their city, making decisions about routes, methods of care and ultimately taking responsibility for a service which, in the present moment of austerity, is under threat. Collaborating with four scientific advisers and a dynamic team of theatre makers, The Kindness of Strangers will be an unforgettable experience for audiences, shining a light on a vital public service. The pilot 3 day version of the show is made in co-production with Norfolk & Norwich Festival in association with Norvic Ambulanc e Services. It will then tour for 5 week-long runs to five further festivals across the UK in 2013/14. The Kindness of Strangers will be made in collaboration with 4 members of the Norwich community and then adapted for future touring partners. In this way it is a unique blend of public engagement, mixing dynamic theatre making with practising scientists and members of specific communities with stories to tell about the British Ambulance Service.

Amount: £29,459
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Curious Directive

Regenerate!. 10 Apr 2013

Regeneration is a swift but volcanic experience, a sort of violent biological eruption in which the body cells are displaced, changed, renewed and rearranged. - Doctor Who. Will stem-cell biologists make Time Lords of us all? Regenerate aims to use a partnership approach to inspire conversation in geographically remote communities of Scotland about this question in relation to the fast moving field of stem cell science and support teaching about the field. Working wi th the project Hope beyond Hype: Scottish Stem cell stories , which is delivering user led events to patient groups and community groups in remote areas of Scotland, we will add a further dimension by visiting the local secondary school, providing invigorating workshops and teacher CPD for surrounding schools, facilitated by contemporary stem cell scientists and experienced science communicators.

Amount: £30,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: University of Edinburgh

An application to redevelop the play Killing Roger , which deals with the biomedical and ethical issues raised by terminal illness, in order to take it to Edinburgh and Bedford Fringe Festivals in July and August 2013. 10 Apr 2013

Sparkle and Dark's Travelling Players are a professional theatre company. We are applying to The Wellcome Trust in order to take our new show Killing Roger to Bedford Festival Fringe and then onto Edinburgh Festival Fringe, the largest arts festival in the world. Could you kill someone Billy? I mean really, could you? What if they asked you to? Billy, a conscientious, opinionated teenager, recounts his weekly visits to Roger, a chain smoking, chair-ridden, sharp tongued old man. An unlik ely friendship forms and soon young Billy must decide what it means to truly care about someone. Rapidly, levels of reality distort and shift as we delve through Rogers Memories and Billys troubled mind. New writing by award winning company Sparkle and Dark, using puppetry and a live soundscape. a young theatre company with great promise The Stage, 2012 At the heart of Killing Roger is the debate: 'the right to die' which deals with the biomedical and ethical issues raised by terminal il lness and the success of biomedical science in increasing human longevity. By taking Killing Roger to these festivals we will engage audiences with the issues surrounding this debate. Killing Roger will be premi red in March at Little Angel Theatre, the home of British puppetry. Funding from the Wellcome Trust will allow us to redevelop the show after its premiere and to take to the festivals, so that we can engage as large an audience as possible.

Amount: £24,209
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Sparkle and Dark's Travelling Players

Killing Roger - Extension. 16 Sep 2013

Sparkle and Dark's Travelling Players are a professional theatre company. We are applying to The Wellcome Trust in order to take our new show Killing Roger to Bedford Festival Fringe and then onto Edinburgh Festival Fringe, the largest arts festival in the world. Could you kill someone Billy? I mean really, could you? What if they asked you to? Billy, a conscientious, opinionated teenager, recounts his weekly visits to Roger, a chain smoking, chair-ridden, sharp tongued old man. An unlik ely friendship forms and soon young Billy must decide what it means to truly care about someone. Rapidly, levels of reality distort and shift as we delve through Rogers Memories and Billys troubled mind. New writing by award winning company Sparkle and Dark, using puppetry and a live soundscape. a young theatre company with great promise The Stage, 2012 At the heart of Killing Roger is the debate: 'the right to die' which deals with the biomedical and ethical issues raised by terminal il lness and the success of biomedical science in increasing human longevity. By taking Killing Roger to these festivals we will engage audiences with the issues surrounding this debate. Killing Roger will be premi red in March at Little Angel Theatre, the home of British puppetry. Funding from the Wellcome Trust will allow us to redevelop the show after its premiere and to take to the festivals, so that we can engage as large an audience as possible.

Amount: £30,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Sparkle and Dark's Travelling Players

James - Short Film. 10 Apr 2013

A short drama film about the first vaccination by Edward Jenner in 1796, seen through the eyes of James Phipps - the eight year old son of a farm labourer upon whom Jenner carried out the experiment. Participants in clinical trials are the unsung heroes of medicine. As well as celebrating Jenner as the pioneer of immunisation, the film pays tribute to James and introduces themes relating to the importance and ethics of clinical trials. An experienced team of critically acclaimed filmmake rs will produce a beautiful, engaging and informative film that will play at UK and international festivals and give a fresh perspective to one of the most important episodes in the history of medicine. It will also feature as a permanent exhibit and key teaching aid in the Jenner Museum in Gloucestershire, which receives over 5000 visitors each year and an additional 1000 children through school visits and outreach. Furthermore, it will be made freely accessible on the museum's popular webs ite, and through links on other relevant websites. Teachers have expressed excitement about a film that will engage children by depicting events through the eyes of someone their own age. Jenner is the only scientist to feature in the primary school National Curriculum. By creating a strong web presence we intend the film to become an established teaching aid, reaching hundreds of thousands of primary school children. The project provides excellent value: online distribution incurs zero co st, and any additional costs for screenings/outreach can be met through collaboration and sponsorship.

Amount: £29,920
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: The Jenner Trust

Campy Command: Nowhere to Run. 10 Apr 2013

We propose to develop an online game which has accurate content regarding Campylobacter Jejuni bacteria, with the aim of reaching audiences not normally engaged with the subject matter. We will achieve this with a free game made available across many online game portals (such as Kongregate), that uses toilet humour to convey scientifically accurate material whilst being fun and enticing to it's target audience. Game Synopsis: Life for little Campy was simple. There's not much to do whe n you're happily living in a chicken's gut. The chickens dont mind, it's business as usual for those guys. But something's not right. The usual flow of succulent amino acids has stopped, as has the flow of dangerous glucose, and Campy starts to suspect that the chicken might not be ok. Then the world as Campy knows it dissolves, revealing a harsh and hostile environment. This isn't right, this is a human gut, your gut. There's only one way out of this, and you're not going to like it ... Taking command over the Campylobacter Jejuni bacteria, players navigate their way through the human gut, an environment that gets more and more dangerous the longer you stay, as the human immune system is going to fight you with everything its got. But there is hope for Campy, by infecting cells in the intestine wall, Campy will be ejected from this malicious environment. Ejected, from human gut... Of course it might not be your gut, if your friend happened to get that poorly coo ked chicken portion...

Amount: £29,806
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Remode Ltd

I want to be an elephant . 10 Apr 2013

This is a project to build mechanical, physiological and cognitive prostheses that enable a person to walk, eat and sense like an elephant. It is envisaged these prostheses will take the form of an exoskeleton that an occupant is suspended in, allowing them to use all of their limbs to walk with a quadrupedal gait, and which also supports a simple artificial stomach for fermenting and pre-digesting grass, and a helmet which contains various prisms, acoustic channels and so on, to enable the occ upant to experience an elephants world view. The creation of this elephant simulation device will involve following a line of research that runs through physiology, biomechanics and comparative cognition in quite an oblique manner, asking some interesting and unusual questions. So, while the production of the elephant exoskeleton is one goal, the documentation and presentation of the research and development process is equally important. This documentation will be exhibited in the form of phy sical prototyped objects and experiments made in order to get a handle on the different questions and research areas, along with a documentary film and writing. A further goal, contingent on the functionality of the exoskeleton, and to be included in the film, is to document an attempt to walk in the elephant exoskeleton across the Alps, referencing Hannibal's alleged journey with elephants. This part of the project would be done in association with Akademie Schloss Solitude.

Amount: £30,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Misc Greater London

The Mouse. 10 Apr 2013

23-minute drama. THE MOUSE is a tender love story concealed within a fierce urban thriller. It dramatises the interface of bipolar disorder, psychiatry and deprivation in the life of a vulnerable teenager. The project is a collaboration between filmmaker Theo Baines, adolescent psychiatrist Dr Simon Lewis (clinical lead, Simmons House NHS residential unit) and cinema story-editor Walter Donohue (Paris Texas, 28 Days Later). The film explores the impact of social and economic deprivatio n in adolescence on young people's first experiences of mental illness and psychiatry, and on their subsequent risk of isolation, unemployment and homelessness in early adulthood. A psychotic young homeless man is sectioned by police in east London and taken to A&E. In a psychiatric assessment, Jacob tells his story: Two weeks earlier he travels to London, leaving his medication to begin again without it. He finds work in a kitchen and meets 15-year-old Ayla. They fascinate each other. Ayla loves the mice she sees under the tracks at tube stations. Jacob devotes himself to getting her one by any means possible - in an increasingly imaginative series of schemes. Unaware of his endeavours but alarmed by his unsettled personality, Ayla ends their short relationship. Heart-broken, unemployed and homeless, Jacobs rapid-cycling symptoms of bipolar disorder and anxiety become increasingly serious, and his quest to catch a mouse ever-more urgent. The story ends in a suspenseful enco unter at Aylas family home. To be offered free online and to Key-Stage 4 PSHE teachers. Promotional campaign will target audience of 15-25-year-olds.

Amount: £29,990
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: The Whittington Charity

Altered Perceptions - Cambridge Science Centre. 10 Apr 2013

We will deliver a programme of interactive adult events, shows and educational resources as part of our exhibition on perception scheduled from July-December 2013. The programme aims to raise awareness of: 1. the importance of our senses to our physical and emotional state and the challenges individuals with altered senses/perception face 2. the world class, local research into senses and perception, thereby enhancing the community's understanding of, and appreciation for, the impact of scientific research on improving the quality of life of individuals with sensory disorders and altered perception We will deliver five interactive adult events during Sep-Nov 2013 (Vision, Hearing, Taste and Smell, Touch and Pain, Body Image). Audiences will explore their senses through hands-on activities while learning about the anatomy and physiology of the senses, and how the brain organises, identifies and interprets external signals to help us understand the world. The audience will d irectly experience the effects that altered (lost, reduced or enhanced) senses/perception have on an individuals physical and emotional state. Scientists and consultants will talk to the participants about what they are experiencing, and relate that to their own research in advancing medical sciences. The interactive show and workshop will take two forms: a long form linked to the school curriculum, suitable for school audiences; and a short-form suitable for use in the Centre for the general public during our exhibition (July-December). This will continue to be delivered as part of our schools programme after the exhibition.

Amount: £21,650
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Cambridge Science Centre

Evolution Online: an animation series exploring the evolution of the horse and of the whale for Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2 students. 10 Apr 2013

Evolution Online will bring alive, in a series of two animations, the story of the evolution of two charismatic creatures, the horse and the whale, in a way which communicates evolutionary science to a young audience of five to 11 year olds via a medium they naturally turn to, online video. As such, the two films will give an early introduction to scientific principles that underlay biomedical science for children from seven to 11. In terms of National Curriculum relevance, these films meet t he National Curriculum requirements for teaching adaption in Key Stage 2 and can be used to support science teaching at Key Stage 1. Video is an appropriate medium to use at these stages as video material can encapsulate and explain difficult concepts in a simple and engaging form. As both Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2 teachers increasingly use interactive white boards that support the use of video, so video material is also readily accessible to this audience. The video materials will be cr eated by an expert team who have a broad experience of producing animation for the intended audience. The core creative team were commissioned by Kew on a Wellcome funded project to produce the award-winning Darwin Great Plant Hunt. This team will ensure the materials are produced to an extremely high standard. Outside of school, the resources will be a valuable tool for parents to use in supporting their children's science education.

Amount: £29,500
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Green.TV Media Ltd
Amount: £267,206
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Save the Children
Amount: £3,737,904
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Save the Children

Cancer Care. 10 Apr 2013

We have unprecedented access to UCLs Cancer Institute and Cancer Hospital, allowing us to follow ground-breaking trials from the lab to the ward; intertwining life and death stories of people affected by cancer with those of the dedicated researchers working to find a cure. Following 4-5 cancer patients we will join them as they embark on clinical trials. One of many examples is Dr Martin Pule, who is running the cellular immunotherapy CHILDHOPE trial. Dr Pule is engineering chimeric artific ial receptors to create anti-CD19 CAR augmented donor leukocyte infusions to specifically target and destroy cancer cells in patients with B Cell Leukemias. Although Martin will explain the science to the patient, for the audience to fully understand the science it is imperative to use CGI to take them inside the engineering process at a molecular level. Similarly, UCLs combined PET/MRI scanner (unique in the UK) means tumours can be visualized in a way not previously available. But we need render these images in 3D to make them friendly to the viewing audience. The film will use the unique precinct provided by this highly integrated Hospital and Institute to interweave stories of various examples of cutting edge science being used to save or prolong lives, and in some cases cure patients of their cancers completely. CGI will be used to break down the jargon used by the clinicians, allowing the viewer to appreciate the complex and astounding biomedical technology being deployed deep inside these patients bodies.

Amount: £30,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: True Vision Productions

Ecotoxic. 10 Apr 2013

Ecotoxic is a series of research projects by artists Ariel Guzik, Brandon Balleng e, Micol Assa l and Kuai Shen exploring the impact of environmental pollution on animal behaviour and health. The aim is to enrich their current artistic practices, and make credible observations of animal behaviour that may contribute to scientific knowledge. Their research will be conducted in collaboration with scientists working in marine biology, ecology, entomology, and ecotoxicology. Tracing and unravelli ng the often-invisible effects of human activity on other species, the artists aim to draw attention to the impact of noise and toxins on animal wellbeing and health through distinctive artistic practices. Ariel Guzik will focus on the importance of sound in whale and dolphin communication and the impact of underwater sound pollution, through performative actions undertaken in the UK in cooperation with cetacean experts. Brandon Balleng e will work with environmental biologist Dr Alan Scarlett o f Plymouth University to see if it is possible to detect Deep Water Horizon (Gulf oil spill) disaster chemicals in migratory fish species in British markets. Micol Assa l will look into the poetics and dynamics of bee flight trajectories in changing environmental conditions, advised by insect specialists. Kuai Shen will investigate how ant behaviour alters in response to manmade environmental changes, specifically in Yasuni National Park in Ecuador, in collaboration with myrmecologist Dr David D onoso. The aim of this research phase is to arrive at detailed production proposals for a series of original artists works, taking the form of sound performances, installations and films.

Amount: £29,830
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Arts Catalyst

The Invisible Biome - explore the world inside your body. 23 May 2013

A permanent exhibition, supported by family-focused events, web and formal education programmes, will explore the unfolding story of the human microbiome providing new ways of understanding and linking human health and planetary health in a rapidly-changing world. Eden encourages people to work with nature and each other, aiming to help create robust, healthy societies that can cope in an evolving world and change it for the better. We start by reconnecting audiences with nature, immersing them in global ecosystems. Until now, one vital ecosystem was missing: our own. The 'Invisible Biome' will take people inside the body to meet the community that nurtures them. In our bodies bacterial cells outnumber our cells 10:1. We are not individuals, we are ecosystems. Popular understanding that microbes cause illness is changing. We need them. They also regulate our bodies, help prevent diseases and disorders, even affect mood and personality. These new biomedical discoveries could influence how we look at health, nutrition, medicines and our lifestyle decisions in the future. Eden's lifeblood is effective science communication. We will make the stories personal and relevant to a broad audience linking the health of our body's ecosystem with the planet's. We will evaluate what enhances understanding and triggers behavioural change. The exhibition: a darkened aquarium with spot-lit tanks containing microbes in organs represented by a range of interactive artistic media. The project will truly engage people with biodiversity, interdependencies between humans, plants, microbes and their environment, and the implications for the health of all these ecosystems.

Amount: £250,000
Funder: The Wellcome Trust
Recipient: Eden Project

Wolbachia transinfection of Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes to impact transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus . 29 May 2013

Transinfection of Drosophila Wolbachia strains in Culex tritaeniorhynchus, which grow to high densities in insect hosts, would likely provide strong protection against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), which is part of the same genus of viruses as dengue (Flavivirus). The proposed research would involve introducing Drosophila Wolbachia strains using embryonic microinjection into Culex tritaeniorhynchus, which does not harbour natural Wolbachia infections. Selection for stable transinfected li nes would be followed by an assessment of Wolbachia density and tissue tropism in female mosquitoes. Stable Wolbachia-infected lines would be outbred to maintain a diverse mosquito genetic background. Vector competence of Wolbachia-transinfected lines would be assessed by oral feeding mosquitoes with JEV-spiked bloodmeals at different virus titers. The JEV infection levels in mosquito body parts would be measured and an assessment of infectious JEV virus in the saliva would be undertaken. Se veral strains of JEV would be tested to ensure any effects on transmission would be effective against a diverse panel of JEV strains. The fitness of transinfected mosquito lines would also be measured in addition to large cage invasion experiments to determine the suitability of particular strains for the applied biocontrol use in field populations.

BEIT prize 16 Sep 2013

Transinfection of Drosophila Wolbachia strains in Culex tritaeniorhynchus, which grow to high densities in insect hosts, would likely provide strong protection against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), which is part of the same genus of viruses as dengue (Flavivirus). The proposed research would involve introducing Drosophila Wolbachia strains using embryonic microinjection into Culex tritaeniorhynchus, which does not harbour natural Wolbachia infections. Selection for stable transinfected li nes would be followed by an assessment of Wolbachia density and tissue tropism in female mosquitoes. Stable Wolbachia-infected lines would be outbred to maintain a diverse mosquito genetic background. Vector competence of Wolbachia-transinfected lines would be assessed by oral feeding mosquitoes with JEV-spiked bloodmeals at different virus titers. The JEV infection levels in mosquito body parts would be measured and an assessment of infectious JEV virus in the saliva would be undertaken. Se veral strains of JEV would be tested to ensure any effects on transmission would be effective against a diverse panel of JEV strains. The fitness of transinfected mosquito lines would also be measured in addition to large cage invasion experiments to determine the suitability of particular strains for the applied biocontrol use in field populations.